pituitary disease
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2021 ◽  
pp. 703-718
Antonia Brooke ◽  
Andrew McGovern

Ageing causes changes in many hormonal areas. This chapter begins with an overview of these changes, and goes on to bone disease in the elderly, changes in growth hormones and IGF-1, differences in gonadal function and adrenal function, and then thyroid and pituitary disease in the ageing patient.

Fabienne Langlois ◽  
Elena V Varlamov ◽  
Maria Fleseriu

Abstract Hypophysitis is defined as inflammation of the pituitary gland that is primary or secondary to a local or systemic process. Differential diagnosis is broad (including primary tumors, metastases, and lympho-proliferative diseases) and multifaceted. Patients with hypophysitis typically present with headaches, some degree of anterior and/or posterior pituitary dysfunction, and enlargement of pituitary gland and/or stalk, as determined by imaging. Most hypophysitis causes are autoimmune, but other etiologies include inflammation secondary to cellar tumors or cysts, systemic diseases, and infection or drug-induced causes. Novel pathologies such as IgG4-related hypophysitis, immunotherapy-induced hypophysitis and paraneoplastic pituitary-directed autoimmunity are also included in a growing spectrum of this rare pituitary disease. Typical magnetic resonance imaging reveals stalk thickening and homogenous enlargement of the pituitary gland, however, imaging is not always specific. Diagnosis can be challenging and ultimately, only a pituitary biopsy can confirm hypophysitis type and rule out other etiologies. A presumptive diagnosis can be made often without biopsy. Detailed history and clinical examination are essential, notably for signs of underlying etiology with systemic manifestations. Hormone replacement and in selected cases careful observation is advised with imaging follow-up. High-dose glucocorticoids are initiated mainly to help reduce mass effect. A response may be observed in all auto-immune etiologies, but also in lymphoproliferative diseases, and as such should not be used for differential diagnosis. Surgery may be necessary in some cases to relieve mass effect and allow a definite diagnosis. Immunosuppressive therapy and radiation are sometimes also necessary in resistant cases.

Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Athanasios Fountas ◽  
Niki Karavitaki

Van der Meulen Merel ◽  
Daniel J. Lobatto ◽  
R. van Furth Wouter ◽  
Sasja D. Huisman ◽  
Yvonne F. Heerkens ◽  

Roxana Dumitriu ◽  
Iulia Florentina Burcea ◽  
Roxana Dusceac ◽  
Catalina Poiana

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. A524-A525
Ingvars Rasa ◽  
Maija Gurevica

Abstract Background: Our registry study is designed to create a unified database of pituitary disease patients in Latvia. Methods: We collected 3 yrs data from medical records with pituitary diseases from one clinical university hospital and 4 outpatients clinics. Prospective cohort analysis was performed based on demographic data, MRI, laboratory data, data on medications and regimens used to treat pituitary diseases, information on co-morbidities and concomitant medications used in 355 patients with various pituitary diseases: prolactinomas, clinically nonfunctional adenomas (CNFA), acromegalies, empty sella syndrome, Cushing’s disease (CD), Ratke’s pocket cysts, meningiomas, craniopharyngoma, pituitary aplasia and hypoplasia, TSH-omas, germinoma, glioma, chondrosarcoma, pericytoma. Results: From July 2016 to July 2019, 355 people (71.7% women) with pituitary diseases were registered. The mean age in the cohort was 43.4 yrs (range 18–83 yrs). Prolactinomas were the most common adenomas (40.8%), followed by CNFA (28.5%), acromegaly (16.1%) and empty sella syndrome (5.1%), CD (2.3%), Ratchet pocket cysts (2.3%), meningiomas (1.4%), craniopharyngiomas (1.1%), pituitary aplasia and hypoplasia (0.8%), TSH-omas (0.6%), germinoma (0.3%), glioma (0.3%), chondrosarcoma (0.3%), pericitoma (0.3%). Female dominance was observed in patients with prolactinoma and CNFA, ​​empty sella syndrome, Ratke’s pocket cysts, CD, meningiomas, TSH-omas. Patients in the cohort most often received drug therapy with any type of medication alone (octreotide LAR, lanreotide, bromocriptine, cabergoline, pegvisomant) in 50.5% of cases; various types of combination therapy in 13% of cases. The majority of patients (81.7%) were treated with 1or more medication for co-morbidity. Thyroid disease was slightly more common than cardiovascular disease: 86.1% vs. 81.3%. In 10.1% of the cohort, cancer of various localities was detected. Both types of diabetes or other disorders of carbohydrate metabolism were found in 36.3% of cases. Conclusion: Based on the study of the pituitary disease register in Latvia, a unified database of pituitary disease patients has been created, which allows analyzing the population characteristics of the pituitary diseases, the applied treatment schemes for the treatment of pituitary diseases; types of neurosurgery, medication and radiation therapy. A state register may be set up in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 525 ◽  
pp. 111176
Charlotte Nys ◽  
Hugo Vankelecom

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