hormone replacement
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ying Liang ◽  
Haoyan Jiao ◽  
Lingbo Qu ◽  
Hao Liu

Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use is associated with elevated endometrial cancer(EC) risk, little evidence assesses potential effect-modifiers on HRT-related EC in a long-term follow-up. In this large-scale longitudinal cohort study, we tried to evaluate the association between different HRT types/methods use and risk of EC, and reveal this risk within different body mass index (BMI) groups. In whole cohort, 677 EC occurred during mean 11.6 years follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with HRT status (never, former, or current) for risk of EC incidence. Current HRT use was not significantly associated with EC risk (HR for current vs. never HRT use: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.38) in the whole cohort, but presented a dose-response effect on increased EC risk (HR for >10-year use vs. never HRT use: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.21). Moreover, EC risk differed in distinct regimens or subsets (all Pinteraction < 0.05). Estrogen-only use was associated with elevated EC risk (HR for current vs. never HRT use: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04), but women with high BMI (> 30 kg/m2) who currently use estrogen-only harbored decreased EC risk (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.82) compared to counterparts without HRT use. Estrogen-only use is associated with increased EC risk, and precise monitoring of EC development for postmenopausal women with long-term HRT use are urgently needed. BMI could serve as an important surrogate to assess this risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Hanxiao Chen ◽  
Luqi Xue ◽  
Guidong Gong ◽  
Jiezhou Pan ◽  
Xiaoling Wang ◽  

AbstractCollagen, the main component of mammal skin, has been traditionally used in leather manufacturing for thousands of years due to its diverse physicochemical properties. Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals and the main component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The properties of collagen also make it an ideal building block for the engineering of materials for a range of biomedical applications. Reproductive medicine, especially human fertility preservation strategies and reproductive organ regeneration, has attracted significant attention in recent years as it is key in resolving the growing social concern over aging populations worldwide. Collagen-based biomaterials such as collagen hydrogels, decellularized ECM (dECM), and bioengineering techniques including collagen-based 3D bioprinting have facilitated the engineering of reproductive tissues. This review summarizes the recent progress in applying collagen-based biomaterials in reproductive. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of collagen-based materials for engineering artificial reproductive tissues, hormone replacement therapy, and reproductive organ reconstruction, aiming to inspire new thoughts and advancements in engineered reproductive tissues research. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 430-432
Chirantap Oza ◽  
Madhura Karguppikar ◽  
Vaman Khadilkar ◽  
Anuradha Khadilkar

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1 (APS-1)also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation of AIRE gene on chromosome 21q22.3 with an overall prevalence of <1:100,000. Here, we present a 16-year-old male having clinical history of evolution of symptoms for oral candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency (AI). He developed rare endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations such as type-1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune hepatitis, respectively. The patient while on hormone replacement therapy along with immunosuppressants developed liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension with esophageal varices and candidiasis. Subsequently, he was admitted for complaints of cough, cold and fever and was confirmed to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In his prolonged ICU stay of 26 days, he required oxygen therapy, intravenous glucocorticoids, remdesivir, low molecular weight heparin, and hemodynamic support with inotropes. His medical management with subcutaneous insulin therapy and azathioprine was continued. He was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms and negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 and was advised radiological and clinical follow-up. Reports suggest that risk of severe COVID does not increase in patients with AI or autoimmunity. However, our patient possibly developed severe COVID not only due to AI and autoimmunity but also associated rare manifestations like hyperglycemia due to T1D and cirrhosis. Thus, good glycemic control and well-tolerated modern immunosuppressant therapy may be useful in improving prognosis of severe COVID-19 illness in patients with APS-1.

2022 ◽  
Sachiko Kitagawa ◽  
Kenjiro Wakabayashi ◽  
Yoshiteru Azuma ◽  
Hirokazu Kurahashi ◽  
Kei Takazawa ◽  

Abstract Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a displacement of the femoral head epiphysis that is sometimes associated with endocrinopathies. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) who developed SCFE during growth hormone therapy (GHT). We also performed a systematic review of the cases of SCFE and hypogonadism in the literature. Case presentation: The patient was diagnosed with HH based on the absence of ovaries and a uterus. Her medical history included GHT for 9 years as she was small for gestational age. Chromosomal and genetic analyses revealed no pathogenic abnormalities. Radiographs revealed a left SCFE with a 28.7° posterior tilt angle. GHT was discontinued, and bilateral in situ screw fixation was performed. Sex hormone therapy (SHT) was initiated. Two years later, the patient recovered.Methods: We reviewed the cases of hypogonadism complicated with SCFE. The guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 statement were followed. Case reports of patients were retrieved using PubMed on November 17, 2021.Results: A total of 44 cases of SCFE and hypogonadism were identified, including this case. Endocrinological complications included growth hormone deficiency (n = 18), being overweight (n = 9), and hypothyroidism (n = 25). Hormone replacement was administered before (SHT, n = 6; GHT, n = 12) and after surgery (SHT, n = 21; GHT, n = 11). SCFE surgery was invasive (minimal, n = 19; moderate, n = 10; high, n = 8). Orthopedic complications were observed in four cases. Conclusions: If hypogonadism occurs during GHT, SCFE should be noted. Hypogonadism should be studied to determine the effects of hormonal replacement on SCFE.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-03
PD Gupta

Estrogens are the group of hormones which makes a woman a woman. Girls at menarche start making it and under normal conditions sufficient levels are maintained in the women's body until menopause. During perimenopause, menopause and postmenopause the hormone levels start fluctuating and if maintained low for a longer period, it starts giving various problems. Fluctuating levels of estrogen causes, hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, depression, and mood swings. Sleep disturbances brain fog and may be heart disease, osteoporosis, obesity and the appearance of unwanted facial hair. These problems can be overcome by supplementing with phytoestrogens or hormone replacement therapy.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e055139
Hsien-Chin Tang ◽  
Ya-Yun Cheng ◽  
How-Ran Guo

ObjectiveCarpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive focal mononeuropathy, and the increased incidence in postmenopausal and pregnant women suggests its association with oestrogen. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the occurrence of CTS.DesignPopulation-based case-control study.SettingNationwide health insurance programme operated by the government with a near 100% coverage rate.ParticipantsWe identified women ≥45 years old in the Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, which contains data on a representative sample of one million enrollees. After exclusion of those who were diagnosed with CTS before the prescription of HRT, a total of 118 309 participants were included and followed up for 15 years starting from 1 January 1996. Both HRT and occurrence of CTS were identified using the insurance claims.Main outcome measuresWe identified incident patients of CTS and evaluated the association between HRT and CTS by calculating the OR.ResultsOf the 4535 participants who developed CTS during the study period, 2334 (51.5%) were HRT recipients. In participants without CTS, the proportion of HRT recipients was 28.1%, yielding an OR of 2.72 with a 95% CI of 2.56 to 2.88. After adjustment for age, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, gout and obesity, the OR of CTS associated with HRT was 2.04 (95% CI 1.91 to 2.17). While HRT, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and gout had similar effects on CTS across all age groups, hypothyroidism and obesity had different effects on different groups.ConclusionThis study observed a positive association between HRT and CTS, independent of age, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, gout and obesity. While the ORs of CTS associated with HRT were similar across age groups, those associated with hypothyroidism and obesity were not, indicating effect modifications by age.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 83-89
A. F. Urmancheeva ◽  
G. F. Kutusheva

The article gives critical analysis of numerous epidemiological studies touching upon the problems of carcinogenesis while using hormonal contraception and hormonal replacement therapy and also the expediency of HRT as to oncologic patients after radical treatment.The materials presented testify to relative carcinogenous safety of hormonal contraceptives as to the majority of tumors and even considerable decrease of endometrial and ovarian cancer risk; but some investigations point to the increase о f breast cancer in case о f prolonged application о f hormonal preparations.The results оf the analysis show that HR Tmay be recommended among female population providing active screening, especially of mammary glands and endometrium. Besides that, hormonal preparations are not excluded for rehabilitation of some oncologic patients underthorough monitoring. Yet, there exists burning necessity of continuing cooperated scientific and clinical investigations forfurther studying oncologic aspects of hormonal contraception and HRT.

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