Stem Cells
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2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 231-241
Takahiro Iwasawa ◽  
Shunsuke Nojiri ◽  
Atsunori Tsuchiya ◽  
Suguru Takeuchi ◽  
Takayuki Watanabe ◽  

2021 ◽  
Mahin Behzadi Fard ◽  
Amir Atashi ◽  
Shahin Amiri ◽  
Saeid Kaviani ◽  
Mohammad Ali Gholampour ◽  

Aim: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) may be infected by parvovirus B19 (B19V). hBMSCs support bone marrow hematopoiesis by producing stromal cells, secretion of cytokines and growth factors, etc. Because of the lifetime persistent infection of the virus in healthy individual’s bone marrow, this study aims to evaluate B19V effects on hBMSCs gene expression of some crucial hematopoietic cytokines. Materials & methods: hBMSCs were transfected with pHI0 plasmid containing the B19V genome. The quantitative mRNA expression of target genes was evaluated 24 h after transfection. Results: Our findings demonstrated a significant increase in expression levels of IL-11 and TPO (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that alteration in the gene expressions in B19V-infected hBMSCs might have significant effects on the bone marrow microenvironment as well as hematopoiesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (15) ◽  
pp. 3348
Angela Quispe-Salcedo ◽  
Hayato Ohshima

The dental pulp is a soft connective tissue of ectomesenchymal origin that harbors distinct cell populations, capable of interacting with each other to maintain the vitality of the tooth. After tooth injuries, a sequence of complex biological events takes place in the pulpal tissue to restore its homeostasis. The pulpal response begins with establishing an inflammatory reaction that leads to the formation of a matrix of reactionary or reparative dentin, according to the nature of the exogenous stimuli. Using several in vivo designs, antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are identified in the pulpal tissue before tertiary dentin deposition under the afflicted area. However, the precise nature of this phenomenon and its relationship to inherent pulp cells are not yet clarified. This literature review aims to discuss the role of pulpal DCs and their relationship to progenitor/stem cells, odontoblasts or odontoblast-like cells, and other immunocompetent cells during physiological and pathological dentinogenesis. The concept of “dentin-pulp immunology” is proposed for understanding the crosstalk among these cell types after tooth injuries, and the possibility of immune-based therapies is introduced to accelerate pulpal healing after exogenous stimuli.

Daniel Otero-Albiol ◽  
Amancio Carnero

AbstractCellular senescence is a complex physiological state whose main feature is proliferative arrest. Cellular senescence can be considered the reverse of cell immortalization and continuous tumor growth. However, cellular senescence has many physiological functions beyond being a putative tumor suppressive trait. It remains unknown whether low levels of oxygen or hypoxia, which is a feature of every tissue in the organism, modulate cellular senescence, altering its capacity to suppress the limitation of proliferation. It has been observed that the lifespan of mammalian primary cells is increased under low oxygen conditions. Additionally, hypoxia promotes self-renewal and pluripotency maintenance in adult and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). In this study, we discuss the role of hypoxia facilitating senescence bypass during malignant transformation and acquisition of stemness properties, which all contribute to tumor development and cancer disease aggressiveness.

2021 ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Xiajing Li ◽  
Zhiyong Zhong ◽  
Yaqi Qiu ◽  
Shoupei Liu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundExosomes secreted from stem cells exerted salutary effects on the fibrotic liver. Herein, the roles of exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) in anti-fibrosis were extensively investigated. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) culture, the clinical and biological relevance of three-dimensional (3D) cell spheroids were greater because of their higher regeneration potential since they behave more like cells in vivo. In our study, exosomes derived from 3D human embryonic stem cells (hESC) spheroids and the monolayer (2D) hESCs were collected and compared the therapeutic potential for fibrotic liver in vitro and in vivo. ResultsIn vitro, PKH26 labled-hESC-Exosomes were shown to be internalized and integrated into TGFβ-activated-LX2 cells, and reduced the expression of profibrogenic markers, thereby regulating cellular phenotypes. TPEF imaging indicated that PKH26-labled-3D-hESC-Exsomes possessed an enhanced capacity to accumulate in the livers and exhibited more dramatic therapeutic potential in the injured livers of fibrosis mouse model. 3D-hESC-Exosomes decreased profibrogenic markers and liver injury markers, and improved the level of liver functioning proteins, eventually restoring liver function of fibrosis mice. miRNA array revealed a significant enrichment of miR-6766-3p in 3D-hESC-Exosomes, moreover, bioinformatics and dual luciferase reporter assay identified and confirmed the TGFβRII gene as the target of miR-6766-3p. Furthermore, the delivery of miR-6766-3p into activated-LX2 cells decreased cell proliferation, chemotaxis and profibrotic effects, and further investigation demonstrated that the expression of target gene TGFβRII and its downstream SMADs proteins, especially phosphorylated protein p-SMAD2/3 was also notably down-regulated by miR-6766-3p. These findings unveiled that miR-6766-3p in 3D-hESC-Exosomes inactivated SMADs signaling by inhibiting TGFβRII expression, consequently attenuating stellate cell activation and suppressing liver fibrosis. ConclusionsOur results showed that miR-6766-3p in the 3D-hESC-Exosomes inactivates smads signaling by restraining TGFβRII expression, attenuated LX2 cell activation and suppressed liver fibrosis, suggesting that 3D-hESC-Exosome enriched-miR6766-3p is a novel anti-fibrotic therapeutics for treating chronic liver disease. These results also proposed a significant strategy that 3D-Exo could be used as natural nanoparticles to rescue liver injury via delivering antifibrotic miR-6766-3p.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (15) ◽  
pp. 8113
Hsing-Ju Wu ◽  
Pei-Yi Chu

Globally, breast cancer has remained the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous and phenotypically diverse group of diseases, which require different selection of treatments. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), a small subset of cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, play essential roles in breast cancer progression, recurrence, metastasis, chemoresistance and treatments. Epigenetics is defined as inheritable changes in gene expression without alteration in DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation includes DNA methylation and demethylation, as well as histone modifications. Aberrant epigenetic regulation results in carcinogenesis. In this review, the mechanism of epigenetic regulation involved in carcinogenesis, therapeutic resistance and metastasis of BCSCs will be discussed, and finally, the therapies targeting these biomarkers will be presented.

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