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BMC Urology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hideki Ban ◽  
Kenichiro Miura ◽  
Rika Tomoeda ◽  
Katsuki Hirai ◽  
Motoshi Hattori

Abstract Background Adenovirus gastroenteritis is a common cause of diarrhea and vomiting in infants, resulting in prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI). However, postrenal AKI due to urinary stones associated with adenovirus gastroenteritis is extremely rare. Here, we describe postrenal AKI due to obstructive ammonium acid urate stones associated with adenovirus gastroenteritis. Case presentation A previously healthy 6-month-old boy had an 11-day history of severe diarrhea and a 5-day history of vomiting. His stool was positive for adenovirus antigens. We initiated fluid replacement therapy. On the second hospital day, he suddenly developed anuria. Abdominal computed tomography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis, left ureteral stones, and right bladder ureteral junction stones. Laboratory data showed that the creatinine level increased to 1.00 mg/dL. We diagnosed postrenal AKI due to obstructive bilateral urinary stones. Urination with stable urine volume resumed spontaneously after hydration. A few stones were found in the urine, which consisted of ammonium acid urate (> 98%). The serum creatinine level improved to 0.25 mg/dL. He was discharged nine days after admission. Conclusions We suggest that adenovirus gastroenteritis be considered in pediatric patients with postrenal AKI due to urinary stones.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Rui Guo ◽  
Renjie Zhang ◽  
Ran Liu ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Hao Li ◽  

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) has been common in China with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study aims to develop a machine learning (ML)-based predictive model for the 90-day evaluation after SICH. We retrospectively reviewed 751 patients with SICH diagnosis and analyzed clinical, radiographic, and laboratory data. A modified Rankin scale (mRS) of 0–2 was defined as a favorable functional outcome, while an mRS of 3–6 was defined as an unfavorable functional outcome. We evaluated 90-day functional outcome and mortality to develop six ML-based predictive models and compared their efficacy with a traditional risk stratification scale, the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score. The predictive performance was evaluated by the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). A total of 553 patients (73.6%) reached the functional outcome at the 3rd month, with the 90-day mortality rate of 10.2%. Logistic regression (LR) and logistic regression CV (LRCV) showed the best predictive performance for functional outcome (AUC = 0.890 and 0.887, respectively), and category boosting presented the best predictive performance for the mortality (AUC = 0.841). Therefore, ML might be of potential assistance in the prediction of the prognosis of SICH.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 203
I-Jung Tsai ◽  
Wen-Chi Shen ◽  
Chia-Ling Lee ◽  
Horng-Dar Wang ◽  
Ching-Yu Lin

Bladder cancer has been increasing globally. Urinary cytology is considered a major screening method for bladder cancer, but it has poor sensitivity. This study aimed to utilize clinical laboratory data and machine learning methods to build predictive models of bladder cancer. A total of 1336 patients with cystitis, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, uterus cancer, and prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Two-step feature selection combined with WEKA and forward selection was performed. Furthermore, five machine learning models, including decision tree, random forest, support vector machine, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and light gradient boosting machine (GBM) were applied. Features, including calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, urine ketone, urine occult blood, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and diabetes were selected. The lightGBM model obtained an accuracy of 84.8% to 86.9%, a sensitivity 84% to 87.8%, a specificity of 82.9% to 86.7%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 to 0.92 in discriminating bladder cancer from cystitis and other cancers. Our study provides a demonstration of utilizing clinical laboratory data to predict bladder cancer.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262342
Natalie J. Atallah ◽  
Hailey M. Warren ◽  
Matthew B. Roberts ◽  
Ramy H. Elshaboury ◽  
Monique R. Bidell ◽  

Purpose Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms including acute respiratory failure. Biomarkers that can predict outcomes in patients with COVID-19 can assist with patient management. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether procalcitonin (PCT) can predict clinical outcome and bacterial superinfection in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods Adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal PCR who were admitted to a tertiary care center in Boston, MA with SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 17 and April 30, 2020 with a baseline PCT value were studied. Patients who were presumed positive for SARS-CoV-2, who lacked PCT levels, or who had a positive urinalysis with negative cultures were excluded. Demographics, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical records. Results 324 patient charts were reviewed and grouped by clinical and microbiologic outcomes by day 28. Baseline PCT levels were significantly higher for patients who were treated for true bacteremia (p = 0.0005) and bacterial pneumonia (p = 0.00077) compared with the non-bacterial infection group. Baseline PCT positively correlated with the NIAID ordinal scale and survival over time. When compared to other inflammatory biomarkers, PCT showed superiority in predicting bacteremia. Conclusions Baseline PCT levels are associated with outcome and bacterial superinfection in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Jin Li ◽  
Xiaohong Li ◽  
Hong Yi ◽  
Qixiu Ren ◽  

Introduction: Iatrogenic factor is one of the recognized causes for premature ovarian insufficiency. The aim of this case report was to present a rare case with premature ovarian insufficiency and 46, XY karyotype after bone marrow transplant (BMT) for thalassaemia major at childhood. We also reviewed some relevant literature in this report.Case Presentation: A 17-year-old girl was presented with primary amenorrhea and premature ovarian insufficiency after receiving chemotherapy and BMT from her brother due to thalassaemia major at childhood. She had poor secondary sex characteristics, assessed as stage I for the development of breasts and external genitalia based on the Tanner scale. Transabdominal ultrasound showed small uterus with visible endometrial lining and small ovaries. Laboratory data showed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism profile with low level of estrogen and high level of follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH). Patient's peripheral lymphocytes karyotype was 46, XY.Conclusions: This case was diagnosed as a chemotherapy induced premature ovarian insufficiency. Patient's peripheral lymphocytes karyotype (46, XY) after she received BMT from a male donor was a misleading finding, and the case could be easily misdiagnosed as Swyer syndrome. A correct diagnosis in such cases should depend not only on the recent clinical findings, but also on the detailed medical history. To prevent premature ovarian insufficiency in similar cases, fertility preservation should be offered to girls before they receive chemotherapy, total body irradiation and BMT.

2022 ◽  
Serap Şimşek-Yavuz ◽  
Gülşah Tunçer ◽  
Özlem Altuntaş Aydın ◽  
Mehtap Aydın ◽  
Filiz Pehlivanoğlu ◽  

Abstract PurposeCOVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be highly effective; however, vaccine breakthrough infections resulting from hospitalization may still occur in a small percentage of vaccinated individuals. We investigated whether the clinical and microbiological features and outcomes were different between hospitalized COVID-19 vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients.MethodsThis multicentre, prospective, cross-sectional study was performed between April and June 2021. All hospitalized COVID-19 patients who previously had at least one dose of Coronavac were included in the study, along with some unvaccinated patients. All epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded and compared between the vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.ResultsThere were 69 fully Coronavac vaccinated and 175 unvaccinated patients. All breakthrough infections occurred in the first 3 months of vaccination. Fully vaccinated patients were older and had more comorbidities than unvaccinated patients (p<0.05). There were minor differences between the groups in the symptoms, physical and laboratory findings, anti-spike IgG positivity rate, mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody level, and severity of COVID-19. The mortality rate of fully vaccinated patients was higher than the mortality rate in unvaccinated patients; however, vaccination was not an independent risk factor for mortality.ConclusionsHospitalized patients with breakthrough COVID-19 after Coronavac vaccination were usually older with comorbidities. The severity and clinical outcomes of these cases were similar to those of unvaccinated patients. Our findings suggest that the immune response elicited by Coronovac could be insufficient to prevent COVID-19-related severe disease and death within 3 months of vaccination among elderly people with comorbidities.

2022 ◽  
pp. 175857322110654
Hasani W Swindell ◽  
Alirio J deMeireles ◽  
Jack R Zhong ◽  
Elise C. Bixby ◽  
Bryan M Saltzman ◽  

Background There is minimal work defining the economic impact of resident participation in shoulder arthroplasty. Thus, this study quantified the opportunity cost of resident participation in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) by determining differences in operative time, relative value units (RVUs)/hour, and RVUs/case. Methods A retrospective analysis of shoulder arthroplasty procedures were identified from the ACS-NSQIP database from 2006 to 2014 using CPT codes. Demographic, comorbidity, preoperative laboratory data and surgical procedure were used to develop matched cohorts. Mean differences in operative time, RVUs/case and RVUs/hour between attending-only (AO) cases and cases with resident involvement (RI) were examined. Cost analysis was performed to identify differences in RVUs generated per hour in dollars/case. Results A total of 1786 AO and 1102 RI cases were identified. With the exception of PGY-3 and PGY-4 cases, RI cases had lower mean operative times compared to AO cases. The cost of RI was highest for PGY-3 ($199.87 per case) and PGY-4 ($9 .2 9) residents with all other postgraduate years providing a cost reduction. Discussion Involvement of residents was associated with shorter operative times leading to a savings of $29.64 per case. Involvement of intermediate-level (PGY-3) residents were associated with increased costs that ultimately decreased as residents became more senior.

2022 ◽  
Fatemeh Amirzadehfard ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Imanieh ◽  
Sina Zoghi ◽  
Faezeh sehatpour ◽  
Peyman Jafari ◽  

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) presentation resembles common flu or can be more severe; it can result in hospitalization with significant morbidity and/or mortality. We made an attempt to develop a predictive model and a scoring system to improve the diagnostic efficiency for COVID-19 mortality via analysis of clinical features and laboratory data on admission. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 480 consecutive adult patients, aged 21-95, who were admitted to Faghihi Teaching Hospital. Clinical and laboratory features were extracted from the medical records and analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: A novel mortality risk score (COVID-19 BURDEN) was calculated, incorporating risk factors from this cohort. CRP (> 73.1 mg/L), O2 saturation variation (greater than 90%, 84-90%, and less than 84%), increased PT (>16.2s), diastolic blood pressure (≤75 mmHg), BUN (>23 mg/dL), and raised LDH (>731 U/L) are the features comprising the scoring system. The patients are triaged to the groups of low- (score <4) and high-risk (score ≥ 4) groups. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity for predicting non-response to medical therapy with scores of ≥ 4 were 0.831, 78.12%, and 70.95%, respectively. Conclusion: Using this scoring system in COVID-19 patients, the severity of the disease will be determined in the early stages of the disease, which will help to reduce hospital care costs and improve its quality and outcome.

2022 ◽  
pp. 34-40
A. V. Solomennikov ◽  
A. I. Tyukavin ◽  
N. A. Arseniev

The presented work reflects the author’s algorithm of mathematical processing and possible interpretations of the results obtained when creating expert analytical systems using computer technology. As initial parameters for the construction of neural networks of the second level, it is proposed to use individual results of calculations of the ratios of a number of laboratory indicators capable of forming a single functional cluster (leukogram, indicators of water-electrolyte balance, protein fractions, etc.). Further, using the proposed calculation algorithm and the archive database, structural features in the ′deformation′ of the ratio panel were compared against the background of the growth of each indicator, a matrix table was built reflecting the degree (correlation coefficients, KCr) of the coincidence of the features of the formation of the structure of the obtained panels of the parameters determined in individual observations. At high values of KCr, a conclusion is made about their (determined parameters) unified participation in the mechanism of emerging disorders. Thus, the system allows you to establish a leading complex of associated relationships by changes in the structure of ratios in the selected panel, corresponding to the dynamics of deviation of the target (analyzed) indicator, thereby differentiating the different mechanisms of formation of pathological deviations in this patient, the manifestation and balance of their values in the system-wide response, to evaluate the specific value of the absolute indicator as the final result of such interaction at the time of examination of the patient. The approach used, proposed by the authors, allows us to evaluate not only quantitative relationships, but also the features of the manifestation of the functional properties of the evaluated indicators. All of the above significantly expands the informativeness of the obtained laboratory data, allowing us to build a reasonable paradigm of the connections of the emerging complex of pathological disorders in each individual case. In the list of references, the authors cite publications as concrete examples of the use of the proposed approach in assessing a complex of disorders with different pathological processes using different panels in calculations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Toru Hifumi ◽  
Atsushi Sakai ◽  
Akihiko Yamamoto ◽  
Kazunori Morokuma ◽  
Norio Otani ◽  

Introduction:Rhabdophis snakes, which include 27 species, are rear-fanged venomous snakes that are widely distributed from India to East Asia and Russia. Severe envenomation by R. tigrinus (Yamakagashi snake) in Japan and R. subminiatus in Southeast Asia has been reported. The epidemiology of R. tigrinus bites, such as geographical features, the incidence, and changes in the number of bites over time have not been comprehensively examined. Hence, we intended to clarify the epidemiological features of R. tigrinus bites through a careful review of scientific data over the last 50 years in Japan.Methods: Patient records of R. tigrinus bites between 1971 and 2020 at the Japan Snake Institute were examined retrospectively. The following were ascertained: patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory data, treatment-related factors, and hospital mortality. These variables were compared in the antivenom and the without-antivenom groups.Results: Over the 50-year study period, 43 R. tigrinus bites, including five fatal cases, were encountered. Severe cases of R. tigrinus bites have been treated with antivenom since 1985; however, fatalities occurred in 2006 and 2020. R. tigrinus bite cases have been well-distributed in the western part of Japan since 2000. The mortality rate in the antivenom group was significantly lower in the patient group that was not administered the antivenom (0 vs. 23.8%, p = 0.048).Conclusion: This study clarified the epidemiology of R. tigrinus bites in Japan over a 50-year period. Almost all severe cases of R. tigrinus bites have been treated with the antivenom in the current situation, and fatalities occurred in cases not treated with the antivenom. It is important to diagnose R. tigrinus bites in the early phase of the clinical course. The antivenom, the definitive treatment for R. tigrinus bites, is an unapproved drug. Hence, approval needs to be obtained for the drug.

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