Differential Diagnosis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. 3850-3854
Author(s):  
Daniel Tran ◽  
Qasim Rahman ◽  
Michael Weed ◽  
Bernard Chow

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiao-Er Wei ◽  
Ming-Hua Li ◽  
Rui-Hua Qiao ◽  
Wei-Bin Yu ◽  
Yue-Hua Li

Background and Purpose: To determine the feasibility of time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories (TWIST) in the diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) and perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF).Methods: A total of 11 negative patients with TWIST examination were retrospective analyzed and then 18 patients with suspected spinal vascular diseases underwent TWIST. For negative patients, Adamkiewicz artery (AKA), great anterior radiculomedullary vein (GARV) and anterior spinal artery (ASA) were retrospective analyzed. In patients, the results of TWIST were compared with those of DSA.Results: The displaying rates of the ASA, AKA and GARV in 11 negative patients were 100, 90.9, and 90.9%, respectively. The AKA and GARV were separated on TWIST. Of 18 patients, 11 and three were diagnosed with SDAVF and PAVF, respectively. The spinal cord vascular malformation diagnosed on TWIST was consistent with DSA with an excellent intermodality agreement (Kappa = 0.92, p < 0.001). The feeding artery and side of all 11 SDAVF patients were displayed on TWIST and the results were consistent with DSA. For PAVF patients, the feeding artery in two patients and the sides as displayed on TWIST were consistent with DSA.Conclusions: TWIST enables the differentiation of the spinal artery and vein and the differential diagnosis of SDAVF and PAVF.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Manal Mustafa Khadora ◽  
Maysa Saleh ◽  
Rawah Idres ◽  
Sura Ahmed Al-Doory ◽  
Mahmoud Ahmed Radaideh

Autoimmune thyroiditis is very rare etiology of primary hypothyroidism in infancy. Hypothyroidism has a wide range of clinical presentation, from subclinical hypothyroidism to overt type. It is unclear what pathological mechanisms connect thyroid function and erythropoiesis or how thyroid disease can contribute to anemia. We report a 12-month-old infant who presented with anemia associated with early onset of overt autoimmune thyroiditis. The peculiarity of our case enables us to draw attention of physician to consider acquired hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis of unexplained anemia even if the neonatal screening is normal and congenital hypothyroidism is a remote possibility.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Lingling Wang ◽  
Na Feng ◽  
Tu Ni ◽  
Wei Tang

AimWe aimed to evaluate the ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to perform differential diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).MethodsWe analyzed 102 enlarged cervical lymph nodes as diagnosed by conventional ultrasound (US) and CEUS. The US and CEUS enhancement pattern and the time intensity curve (TIC) of the metastatic lymph nodes or tuberculous lymph nodes were compared following standard pathological protocols. The TIC included peak time (TTP), peak intensity (PI), and area under the gamma curve (AUC).ResultsPathological results demonstrated that 48 out of the 102 enlarged lymph nodes were lymph node metastasis from PTC, while 54 were tuberculous lymphadenitis. There was statistically significant differences in hyperechoic islands, pulse-like enhancement, and asynchronous enhancement between tuberculous lymphadenitis and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were unsatisfactory. In addition, our data did not show statistically significant difference in enhancement direction, enlarged range on CEUS, and perfusion defect (P > 0.05). Similarly, quantitative parameters such as PI, TTP, and AUC did not yield significant differences between the groups.ConclusionTaken together, the present results demonstrate that CEUS can provide valuable information on lymph node blood flow, which can be used to identify tuberculous lymphadenitis and lymph node metastasis of PTC.


Author(s):  
Ebtihal Zain Alabdeen ◽  
Ashraf Abdelfattah ◽  
Osama Kordi ◽  
Ra'ed Al-Sadhan

The clinical and radiographic dilemma of fibrous dysplasia versus osteomyelitis is highlighted in this case of a 4-year-old girl with a bony hard swelling over the angle of the mandible. Differences between histopathological appearance and radiographic presentation with the possible differential diagnosis were discussed and compared with previous studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zeyu Zhang ◽  
Lei Yao ◽  
Wenlong Wang ◽  
Bo Jiang ◽  
Fada Xia ◽  
...  

IntroductionThyroid cancer (TC) is the most common neck malignancy. However, a large number of publications of TC have not been well summarized and discussed with more comprehensive methods. The purpose of this bibliometric study is to summarize scientific publications during the past three decades in the field of TC using a machine learning method.Material and MethodsScientific publications focusing on TC from 1990 to 2020 were searched in PubMed using the MeSH term “thyroid neoplasms”. Full associated data were downloaded in the format of PubMed, and extracted in the R platform. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) was adopted to identify the research topics from the abstract of each publication using Python.ResultsA total of 34,692 publications related to TC from the last three decades were found and included in this study with an average of 1,119.1 publications per year. Clinical studies and experimental studies shared the most proportion of publications, while the proportion of clinical trials remained at a relatively small level (5.87% as the highest in 2004). Thyroidectomy was the lead MeSH term, followed by prognosis, differential diagnosis, and fine-needle biopsy. The LDA analyses showed the study topics were divided into four clusters, including treatment management, basic research, diagnosis research, epidemiology, and cancer risk. However, a relatively weak connection was shown between treatment managements and basic researches. Top 10 most cited publications in recent years particularly highlighted the applications of active surveillance in TC.ConclusionThyroidectomy, differential diagnosis, genomic analysis, active surveillance are the most concerning topics in TC researches. Although the BRAF-targeted therapy is under development with promising results, there is still an urgent need for conversions from basic studies to clinical practice.


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (18) ◽  
pp. 1066-1072
Author(s):  
Jill Byrne

This article aims to increase knowledge of cardiac assessment. Anatomy and physiology of the heart are briefly reviewed and reference is made to pathology that can cause cardiac dysfunction. The main features to look for when taking a cardiac history are discussed, with suggestions for questions to elicit this information, and the signs to look for when undertaking a cardiac examination. There is also an introduction to the main investigations to aid differential diagnosis and clinical reasoning. A follow-up article will look in more detail at some common cardiac conditions presenting to emergency care, with an emphasis on critical thinking and diagnostic reasoning. These articles are written from an emergency care perspective, and therefore do not focus in great detail on invasive investigation of cardiology conditions, but more so on picking up these possibilities in undifferentiated patients presenting to emergency care.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Author(s):  
Daniel Christensen ◽  
Esteban Gnass ◽  
Guldeep Uppal

Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare benign mass forming lesion that has been reported in virtually every organ, and can closely mimic spindle cell neoplasms. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor (MSP) represents a small proportion of IPT of the lymph node, which occur in immunocompromised patients, posing a diagnostic challenge. We report three cases of MSP involving two AIDS patients who presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, and one immunosuppressed patient with a mediastinal mass. Biopsy in these cases revealed effaced architecture replaced by proliferating fibrohistiocytic spindle cells, fibrosis and polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate. Inflammatory pseudotumors and other spindle cell neoplasms of the lymph node can show overlapping morphologic features, resulting in diagnostic confusion. A differential diagnosis of Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor should be kept in mind when approaching localized or generalized lymphadenopathy in an immunocompromised patient.


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 5166
Author(s):  
Katsuo Usuda ◽  
Masahito Ishikawa ◽  
Shun Iwai ◽  
Aika Yamagata ◽  
Yoshihito Iijima ◽  
...  

The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of FDG-PET/CT and MRI in discriminating malignant from benign pulmonary nodules and masses (PNMs). There were 278 lung cancers and 50 benign PNMs that were examined by FDG-PET/CT and MRI. The T2 contrast ratio (T2 CR) was designated as the ratio of T2 signal intensity of PNM divided by T2 signal intensity of the rhomboid muscle. The optimal cut-off values (OCVs) for differential diagnosis were 3.605 for maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), 1.459 × 10−3 mm2/s for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and 2.46 for T2 CR. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 67.5% for SUVmax, 74.3% for ADC, and 72.4% for T2 CR, respectively. The sensitivity (0.658) of SUVmax was significantly lower than that (0.838) of ADC (p < 0.001) and that (0.871) of T2 CR (p < 0.001). The specificity (0.620) of SUVmax was that the same as (0.640) ADC and (0.640) of T2 CR. The accuracy (0.652) of SUVmax was significantly lower than that (0.808) of ADC (p < 0.001) and that (0.835) of T2 CR (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and accuracy of DWI and T2WI in MRI were significantly higher than those of FDG-PET/CT. Ultimately, MRI can replace FDG PET/CT for differential diagnosis of PNMs saving healthcare systems money while not sacrificing the quality of care.


Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (10) ◽  
pp. 912
Author(s):  
Lisa Gamalero ◽  
Giovanna Ferrara ◽  
Teresa Giani ◽  
Rolando Cimaz

The term septic arthritis refers to an infection of the synovial space. This is an infrequent condition in healthy children, but it should be considered a medical emergency potentially leading to irreversible articular damage. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment play a crucial role in improving the prognosis. Although septic arthritis is the most common cause of acute arthritis, many other diseases may mimic a similar clinical picture, constituting a diagnostic challenge for the clinician who first approaches the patient. Herein we analyze the main features of septic arthritis, offering an overview of the main conditions involved in the differential diagnosis and suggesting a diagnostic workup plan.


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