The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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Published By The Endocrine Society

1945-7197, 0021-972x

Author(s):  
Mengying Wang ◽  
Qiaochu Xue ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Knut Krohn ◽  
Stefanie Ziesche ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Little is known about the relations between changes in circulating microRNA-122 (miR-122) and liver fat in response to weight-loss interventions. We aimed to investigate the association between miR-122 and changes of hepatic fat content during 18-month diet and physical activity interventions. Methods The CENTRAL trial is an 18-month randomized, controlled trial among adults with abdominal obesity or dyslipidemia. Subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet or a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diet. After six months of dietary intervention, each diet group was further randomized into added physical activity groups or no added physical activity groups for the following 12 months of intervention. The current study included 220 participants at baseline and 134 participants with repeated measurements on serum miR-122 and hepatic fat content over 18 months. Results Serum miR-122 significantly increased from baseline to 18 months, while no difference was observed across the four intervention groups. We found a significant association between miR-122 and hepatic fat content at baseline, as per unit increment in log-transformed miR-122 was associated with 3.79 higher hepatic fat content (P<0.001). Furthermore, we found that higher elevations in miR-122 were associated with less reductions in hepatic fat percentage during 18-month interventions (β=1.56, P=0.002). We also found a significant interaction between changes in miR-122 and baseline fasting plasma glucose with hepatic fat content changes in 18 months (P interaction=0.02). Conclusions Our data indicate that participants with higher elevation in serum miR-122 may benefit less in reduction of hepatic fat content in response to diet and physical activity interventions.


Author(s):  
Tuba Seven Menevse ◽  
Yasemin Kendir Demirkol ◽  
Busra Gurpinar Tosun ◽  
Elvan Bayramoglu ◽  
Melek Yildiz ◽  
...  

Abstract Background There is a significant challenge of attributing specific diagnoses to patients with primary adrenal insufficiency of unknown etiology other than congenital adrenal hyperplasia (non-CAH PAI). Specific diagnoses per se may guide personalized treatment or may illuminate pathophysiology. Objective Investigation of the efficacy of steroid hormone profiles and high-throughput sequencing methods in establishing the etiology in non-CAH PAI of unknown origin. Design Paediatric patients with non-CAH PAI whose etiology could not be established by clinical and biochemical characteristics were enrolled. Genetic analysis was performed using targetedgene panel sequencing (TPS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Plasma adrenal steroids were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to that of controls. Setting Eighteen pediatric endocrinology clinics. Patients Forty-one patients (17 females, median age: 3 months, range: 0-8 years) with non-CAH PAI of unknown etiology. Results A genetic diagnosis was obtained in 29 (70.7%) patients by TPS. Further molecular diagnosis could not be achieved by WES. Compared to healthy control group, patients showed lower steroid concentrations, most significantly in cortisone, cortisol, and corticosterone (p<0.0001, area under the ROC curve: 0.96, 0.88, 0.87, respectively). Plasma cortisol<4 ng/mL, cortisone<11 ng/mL, and corticosterone<0.11 ng/mL had >95% specificity to ensure the diagnosis of non-CAH PAI of unknown etiology. Conclusion Steroid hormone profiles are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of non-CAH PAI of unknown etiology, while they are unlikely to point out a specific molecular diagnosis. TPS is an optimal approach in the molecular diagnosis of these patients with high efficacy, while little additional benefit is expected from WES.


Author(s):  
Ruban Dhaliwal ◽  
Rocio I Pereira ◽  
Alicia M Diaz-Thomas ◽  
Camille E Powe ◽  
Licy L Yanes Cardozo ◽  
...  

Abstract The Endocrine Society recognizes racism as a root cause of the health disparities that affect racial/ethnic minority communities in the United States and throughout the world. In this policy perspective, we review the sources and impact of racism on endocrine health disparities and propose interventions aimed at promoting an equitable, diverse, and just healthcare system. Racism in the healthcare system perpetuates health disparities through unequal access and quality of health services, inadequate representation of health professionals from racial/ethnic minority groups, and the propagation of the erroneous belief that socially constructed racial/ethnic groups constitute genetically and biologically distinct populations. Unequal care, particularly for common endocrine diseases such as diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and thyroid disease, results in high morbidity and mortality for individuals from racial/ethnic minority groups, leading to a high socioeconomic burden on minority communities and all members of our society. As health professionals, researchers, educators, and leaders, we have a responsibility to take action to eradicate racism from the healthcare system. Achieving this goal would result in high-quality health care services that are accessible to all, diverse workforces that are representative of the communities we serve, inclusive and equitable workplaces and educational settings that foster collaborative teamwork, and research systems that ensure that scientific advancements benefit all members of our society. The Endocrine Society will continue to prioritize and invest resources in a multifaceted approach to eradicate racism, focused on educating and engaging current and future health professionals, teachers, researchers, policy makers, and leaders.


Author(s):  
Duong Duc Pham ◽  
Jaekyung Song ◽  
Yunwan Jeon ◽  
Ibrahimi Hajar ◽  
Chae Hun Leem

Abstract Context Impact of baseline and alteration of metabolic parameters (MPs), including plasma glucose (PGs) testing, insulin resistance surrogates, and lipid profile and their mutual interactions on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has not been investigated systematically. Objective To access the association of the past variability (V), past mean (M), and the baseline (B) values of various MPs and their mutual interaction with the risk of T2DM. Design Longitudinal analysis from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Setting Community-based Participants 3829 non-diabetic participants with completed MPs measurements during three biannually visits were followed up over the next 10 years. Outcomes Incidence of T2DM during the follow up. Results Among predictors, PG concentrations measured during the oral glucose tolerance test were the most prominent T2DM determinants, in which the M of the average value of fasting PG, 1-h, and 2-h PGs had the strongest discriminative power (hazard ratios and 95% CI for an increment of SD: 3.00 (2.5–3.26), AUC: 0.82). The M values of MPs were superior to their B and V values in predicting T2DM, especially among post-load PGs. Various mutual interactions between indices and among MPs were found. The most consistent interactants were the M values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the M and V values of fasting PG. The findings were similar in normal tolerance glucose participants and were confirmed by sensitivity analyses. Conclusion The post-load PGs, past alteration of measurements, and mutual interactions among indices of MPs are important risk factors for T2DM development.


Author(s):  
Carolyn Horton ◽  
Holly LaDuca ◽  
Ashley Deckman ◽  
Kate Durda ◽  
Michelle Jackson ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Practice guidelines to identify individuals with hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) advocate for sequential gene testing strategy guided by specific clinical features and predate the routine use of multigene panel testing (MGPT). Objective To describe results of MGPT for hereditary PPGL in a clinically and ancestrally diverse cohort. Setting Commercial laboratory based in the United States. Methods Clinical data and test results were retrospectively reviewed in 1727 individuals who had targeted MGPT due to suspicion of hereditary PPGL from August 2013 through December 2019. Results Overall, 27.5% of individuals had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant (PV), 9.0% had a variant of uncertain significance, and 63.1% had a negative result. Most PVs were identified in SDHB (40.4%), followed by SDHD (21.1%), SDHA (10.1%), VHL (7.8%), SDHC (6.7%), RET (3.7%), and MAX (3.6%). PVs in FH, MEN1, NF1, SDHAF2, and TMEM127 collectively accounted for 6.5% of PVs. Clinical predictors of a PV included extra-adrenal location, early age of onset, multiple tumors, and positive family history of PPGL. Individuals with extra-adrenal PGL and a positive family history were the most likely to have a PV (85.9%). Restricting genetic testing to SDHB/C/D misses a third (32.8%) of individuals with PVs. Conclusion Our data demonstrate a high diagnostic yield in individuals with and without established risk factors, a low inconclusive result rate, and a substantial contribution to diagnostic yield from rare genes. These findings support universal testing of all individuals with PPGL and the use of concurrent MGPT as the ideal platform.


Author(s):  
Bess Dawson-Hughes ◽  
Jifan Wang ◽  
Kathryn Barger ◽  
Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari ◽  
Christopher T Sempos ◽  
...  

Abstract Context Supplementation with vitamin D has the potential to both reduce and increase risk of falling, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may contribute to fall risk. Objective To assess the associations of intra-trial mean circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH on incident falls in healthy older adults. Design Observational within a clinical trial. Setting The Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University. Participants 410 men and women age 65 years and older who participated in the 3-year Boston STOP IT trial to determine the effect of supplementation with 700 IU of vitamin D3 plus calcium on incident falls (secondary endpoint). Intra-trial exposures of 25(OH)D and PTH were calculated as the mean of biannual measures up to and including the first fall. Main outcome measures: incidence of first fall Results Intra-trial mean 25(OH)D was significantly associated with risk of falling in a U-shaped pattern; the range associated with minimal risk of falling was approximately 20-40 ng/ml. PTH was not significantly associated with risk of falling. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of maintaining the circulating 25(OH)D level between 20 and 40 ng/ml, the range that is also recommended for bone health. At PTH levels within the normal range, there was no detectible independent association of PTH with fall risk.


Author(s):  
Wasita W Parksook ◽  
Mahyar Heydarpour ◽  
Shadi K Gholami ◽  
James M Luther ◽  
Paul N Hopkins ◽  
...  

Abstract: Context Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially in individuals of African descent, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a salt-sensitive epigenetic regulator associated with SSBP and aldosterone dysfunction. An LSD1 risk allele in humans is associated with SSBP and lower aldosterone levels in hypertensive African but not European descent. Heterozygous knockout LSD1 mice display SSBP and aldosterone dysregulation, but this effect is modified by age and biological sex. This might explain differences in cardiovascular risk with aging and biological sex in humans. Objective To determine if LSD1 risk allele (rs587618) carriers of African descent display a sex-by-age interaction with SSBP and aldosterone regulation. Methods We analyzed 297 individuals of African and European descent from the HyperPATH cohort. We performed multiple regression analyses for outcome variables related to SSBP and aldosterone. Results LSD1 risk allele carriers of African (but not European) descent had greater SSBP than non-risk homozygotes. Female LSD1 risk allele carriers of African descent had greater SSBP, mainly relationship-driven by women of low estrogen (postmenopausal). There was a significant LSD1 genotype-sex interaction in aldosterone response to angiotensin II stimulation in individuals ≤50 years, with female carriers displaying decreased aldosterone responsiveness. Conclusions SSBP associated with LSD1 risk allele status is driven by women of deplete estrogen state. Mechanisms related to a resistance to develop SSBP in females are uncertain but may relate to an estrogen modulating effect on mineralocorticoid receptor activation and/or LSD1 epigenetic regulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor.


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