fuel particles
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 123024
D.O. Glushkov ◽  
K.K. Paushkina ◽  
A.O. Pleshko ◽  
V.S. Vysokomorny

2022 ◽  
Gen Motojima

Colorimetry is a unique technique among research fields. The technique is also utilized in nuclear fusion research. The motivation is to evaluate the wide range of distribution of the deposition layer on the surface of the vacuum vessel. The deposition layer affects the control of fuel particles. Therefore, the result from colorimetry can contribute to the study of particle control in fusion plasma. In a particle control study, global particle balance analysis is usually conducted. Also, long-term samples irradiated by plasma have been analyzed. Colorimetry has the role of a bridge between these analyses. In this chapter, a demonstration of colorimetry in fusion devices is introduced.

2022 ◽  
Ya-ru Li ◽  
Hui Ren ◽  
Xin-zhou Wu ◽  
Hui-xin Wang ◽  
Xi-long Yu

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 305 ◽  
pp. 121424
A. Köhler ◽  
E. Cano-Pleite ◽  
A. Soria-Verdugo ◽  
D. Pallarès ◽  
F. Johnsson

2021 ◽  
Vol 2048 (1) ◽  
pp. 012006
Zhenyu Fu ◽  
Yong Yang ◽  
Isabella J. Van Rooyen ◽  
Subhashish Meher ◽  
Boopathy Kombaiah

Abstract AGR-1 and AGR-2 tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles were fabricated using slightly different fuel kernel chemical compositions, modified fabrication processes, different fuel kernel diameters, and changed 235U enrichments. Extensive microstructural and analytical characterizations were conducted to correlate those differences with the fuel kernels’ responses to neutron irradiations in terms of irradiated fuel microstructure, fission products’ chemical and physical states, and fission gas bubble evolutions. The studies used state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) via four silicon solid-state detectors with super sensitivity and rapid speed. The TEM specimens were prepared from selected AGR-1 and AGR-2 irradiated fuel kernels exposed to safety testing after irradiation. The particles were chosen in order to create representative irradiation conditions with fuel burnup in the range of 10.8 to 18.6% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) and time-average volume-average temperatures varying from 1070 to 1287°C. The 235U enrichment was 19.74 wt.% and 14.03 wt.% for the AGR-1 and AGR-2 fuel kernels, respectively. The TEM results showed significant microstructural reconstructions in the irradiated fuel kernels from both the AGR-1 and AGR-2 fuels. There are four major phases: fuel matrix of UO2 and UC, U2RuC2, and UMoC2—in the irradiated AGR-2 fuel kernel. Zr and Nd form a solid solution in the UC phase. The UMoC2 phase often features a detectable concentration of Tc. Pd was mainly found to be located in the buffer layer or associated with fission gas bubbles within the UMoC2 phase. EDS maps qualitatively show that rare-earth fission products (Nd et al.) preferentially reside in the UO2 phase. In contrast, in the irradiated AGR-1 fuel kernel, no U2RuC2 or UMoC2 precipitates were positively identified. Instead, there was a high number of rod-shaped precipitates enriched with Ru, Tc, Rh, and Pd observed in the fuel kernel center and edge zone. The differences in irradiated fuel kernel microstructural and micro-chemical evolution when comparing AGR-1 and AGR-2 TRISO fuel particles may result from a combination of irradiation temperature, fuel geometry, and chemical composition. However, irradiation temperature probably plays a more deterministic role. Limited electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) characterizations of the AGR-2 fuel kernel show almost no carbon in the UO2 phase, but a small fraction of oxygen was detected in the UC/UMoC2 phase.

Daniel Schappel ◽  
Giovanni Pastore ◽  
Kurt A. Terrani

2021 ◽  
Vol 380 ◽  
pp. 111279
Nairi Baghdasaryan ◽  
Tomasz Kozlowski

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