fusion plasma
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2022 ◽  
Gen Motojima

Colorimetry is a unique technique among research fields. The technique is also utilized in nuclear fusion research. The motivation is to evaluate the wide range of distribution of the deposition layer on the surface of the vacuum vessel. The deposition layer affects the control of fuel particles. Therefore, the result from colorimetry can contribute to the study of particle control in fusion plasma. In a particle control study, global particle balance analysis is usually conducted. Also, long-term samples irradiated by plasma have been analyzed. Colorimetry has the role of a bridge between these analyses. In this chapter, a demonstration of colorimetry in fusion devices is introduced.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (01) ◽  
pp. C01013
Y. Zheng ◽  
G.Y. Yu ◽  
J. Chen ◽  
Y. Chen ◽  
Y.L. Zhu ◽  

Abstract Several mm-wave diagnostics on the DIII-D tokamak provide multi-scale and multi-dimensional measurements of plasma profile evolution and turbulence fluctuations. Mm-wave fusion plasma diagnostics that adopt system-on-chip integrated circuit technology can provide better space utilization, flexible installation, and improved sensitivity. In order to further extend this technology for additional fusion facilities with a higher toroidal magnetic field, V-band (55–75 GHz) and F-band (90–140 GHz) chips for Microwave Imaging Reflectometer (MIR) and Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instruments are developed and tested in the Davis Millimeter Wave Research Center (DMRC). Current measurement data show that correlation between these SoC-based diagnostic instruments with other state-of-the-art diagnostics enables co-located multi-field turbulence fluctuation measurement.

Ying Chen ◽  
Robert Hu ◽  
Jo-Han Yu ◽  
Yu Ye ◽  
Yilun Zhu ◽  

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 264
Guodong Wang ◽  
Si Zhang ◽  
Changqi Chen ◽  
Ning Tang ◽  
Jiaqi Lang ◽  

The neutral beam injector (NBI) generates a high-energy ion beam and neutralizes it, and then relies on drift transmission to inject the formed neutral beam into the fusion plasma to increase the plasma temperature and drive the plasma current. In order to better cooperate with the Experimental Advanced Superconductive Tokamak (EAST), part of the Chinese major national scientific and technological infrastructure, in carrying out long-pulse high-parameter physics experiments of 400 s and above, this paper considers the optimization of the current design and operation of the NBI beam line with a pulse width of 100 s. Based on an upgraded and optimized NBI vacuum chamber and the structure of the beam-line components, the gas-source characteristics under the layout design of the NBI system are analyzed and an NBI vacuum system that meets relevant needs is designed. Using Molflow software to simulate the transport process of gas molecules in the vacuum chamber, the pressure gradient in the vacuum chamber and the heat-load distribution of the low-temperature condensation surface are obtained. The results show that when the NBI system is dynamically balanced, the pressure of each vacuum chamber section is lower than the set value, thus meeting the performance requirements for the NBI vacuum system and providing a basis for subsequent implementation of the NBI vacuum system upgrade using engineering.

2021 ◽  
H. Davari ◽  
B. Farokhi ◽  
M. Ali Asgarian

Abstract A particle-in-cell simulation is modeled and run on a dusty plasma to determine the effect of the magnetic field on the process dust-particle charging through electron-ion plasma. The electric field is solved through the Poisson equation, and the electron-neutral elastic scattering, excitation, and ionization processes are modeled through Monte Carlo collision method. The effects obderved from the initial density of the plasma, the initial temperature of the electrons, and the changing magnetic field are included in this simulation model. In the dust particle charging process, saturation time and saturation charge are compared. An increase in the magnetic field cannot reduce time to reach the saturation state. Determinig the magnetic field boundaries which depend on the physical properties of the plasma, which can be contributive in some areas of dusty(complex) plasma. The applications of the results obtaind here for fusion plasma conditions and space and laboratory plasmas are discussed. The results here can be applied in future simulation models with a focus on the dust particle movement and their effect on plasma, leading to the modeling of different astrophysical plasmas thorough laboratory experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. C11013
J.M. Santos ◽  
E. Ricardo ◽  
F.J. da Silva ◽  
T. Ribeiro ◽  
S. Heuraux ◽  

Abstract The use of advanced simulation has become increasingly more important in the planning, design, and assessment phases of future fusion plasma diagnostics, and in the interpretation of experimental data from existing ones. The design cycle of complex reflectometry systems, such as the ones being planned for next generation machines (IDTT and DEMO), relies heavily on the results produced by synthetic diagnostics, used for system performance evaluation and prediction, both crucial in the design process decision making. These synthetic diagnostics need realistic representations of all system components to incorporate the main effects that shape their behavior. Some of the most important elements that are required to be well modelled and integrated in simulations are the wave launcher structures, such as the waveguides, tapers, and antennas, as well as the vessel wall structures and access to the plasma. The latter are of paramount importance and are often neglected in this type of studies. Faithfully modelling them is not an easy task, especially in 3D simulations. The procedure herein proposed consists in using CAD models of a given machine, together with parameterizable models of the launcher, to produce a description suited for Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) 3D simulation, combining the capabilities of real-world CAD design with the power of simulation. However, CAD model geometric descriptions are incompatible with the ones used by standard FDTD codes. CAD software usually outputs models in a tessellated mesh while FDTD simulators use Volumetric Pixel (VOXEL) descriptions. To solve this interface problem, we implemented a pipeline to automatically convert complex CAD models of tokamak vessel components and wave launcher structures to the VOXEL input required by REFMUL3, a full wave 3D Maxwell FDTD parallel code. To illustrate the full procedure, a complex reflectometry synthetic diagnostic for IDTT was setup, converted and simulated. This setup includes 3 antennas recessed into the vessel wall, for thermal protection, one for transmission and reception, and two just for reception.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6640
Chiara Mistrangelo ◽  
Leo Bühler ◽  
Ciro Alberghi ◽  
Serena Bassini ◽  
Luigi Candido ◽  

According to the most recently revised European design strategy for DEMO breeding blankets, mature concepts have been identified that require a reduced technological extrapolation towards DEMO and will be tested in ITER. In order to optimize and finalize the design of test blanket modules, a number of issues have to be better understood that are related to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interactions of the liquid breeder with the strong magnetic field that confines the fusion plasma. The aim of the present paper is to describe the state of the art of the study of MHD effects coupled with other physical phenomena, such as tritium transport, corrosion and heat transfer. Both numerical and experimental approaches are discussed, as well as future requirements to achieve a reliable prediction of these processes in liquid metal blankets.

2021 ◽  
Yong-Su Na ◽  
Hyunsun Han ◽  
Sangjin Park ◽  
Jisung Kang ◽  
Young-Ho Lee ◽  

Abstract We report a discovery of a fusion plasma regime suitable for commercial fusion reactor where the ion temperature was sustained above 100 million degree about 20 s for the first time. Nuclear fusion as a promising technology for replacing carbon-dependent energy sources has currently many issues to be resolved to enable its large-scale use as a sustainable energy source. State-of-the-art fusion reactors cannot yet achieve the high levels of fusion performance, high temperature, and absence of instabilities required for steady-state operation for a long period of time on the order of hundreds of seconds. This is a pressing challenge within the field, as the development of methods that would enable such capabilities is essential for the successful construction of commercial fusion reactor. Here, a new plasma confinement regime called fast ion roled enhancement (FIRE) mode is presented. This mode is realized at Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) and subsequently characterized to show that it meets most of the requirements for fusion reactor commercialization. Through a comparison to other well-known plasma confinement regimes, the favourable properties of FIRE mode are further elucidated and concluded that the novelty lies in the high fraction of fast ions, which acts to stabilize turbulence and achieve steady-state operation for up to 20 s by self-organization. We propose this mode as a promising path towards commercial fusion reactors.

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