Panic Disorder
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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (18) ◽  
pp. 5657
Jens F. Rehfeld

The classic gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) and its CCK2-receptor are expressed in almost all regions of the brain. This widespread expression makes CCK by far the most abundant peptidergic transmitter system in the brain. This CNS-ubiquity has, however, complicated the delineation of the roles of CCK peptides in normal brain functions and neuropsychiatric diseases. Nevertheless, the common panic disorder disease is apparently associated with CCK in the brain. Thus, the C-terminal tetrapeptide fragment of CCK (CCK-4) induces, by intravenous administration in a dose-related manner, panic attacks that are similar to the endogenous attacks in panic disorder patients. This review describes the history behind the discovery of the panicogenic effect of CCK-4. Subsequently, the review discusses three unsettled questions about the involvement of cerebral CCK in the pathogenesis of anxiety and panic disorder, including therapeutic attempts with CCK2-receptor antagonists.

Laiana A. Quagliato ◽  
Danielle A. Coelho ◽  
Ursula M.A. de Matos ◽  
Antonio E. Nardi

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 112-123
Priscilla Das ◽  
Nyi Nyi Naing ◽  
Nadiah Wan-Arfah ◽  
KON Noorjan ◽  
Yee Cheng Kueh ◽  

Objectives: To assess the association between major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders and the quality of life of neurological disorder (brain tumour/brain disorder) patients. Methods: This study was conducted at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia, a tertiary referral centre hospital for neurological disorder patients. The cross-sectional study design was applied. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire were used in the study. Results: A total of 100 neurological disorder patients were included in the study. The study found that the Major depressive disorder correlated with almost all domains of the quality of life, except the nausea and vomiting scores. Logistic regression showed that emotional functioning and pain were related to major depressive disorder. Different anxiety disorders also correlated with quality of life in specific domains. The leading anxiety disorders that associated mostly with quality of life scales were post traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder lifetime and current, panic disorder with agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder and with agoraphobia current and social phobia current (p < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between psychiatric disorders and quality of life neurological disorder patients. Therefore treatment along with psychiatric intervention should be implemented to improve the overall curability of the neurological disorder patients.

2021 ◽  
Moon-Ju Jeon ◽  
Sung-Man Bae

BACKGROUND Panic attacks have different clinical characteristics among individuals and countries, characterizing time, place, and symptoms are not clearly predictable OBJECTIVE This study aimed to analyze crucial keywords related to panic disorder and identify various clinical characteristics of panic attacks METHODS We collected 8,728 Twitter posts related to panic disorder from January 1 to December 4, 2020. First, we analyzed crucial and simultaneous emergence keywords related to panic disorder. For this, Term frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency, degree centrality, and N-gram analyses were conducted using Rstudio and TEXTOM and visualized as word clouds. Also, we classfied results of Term frequency for panic disorder into physical symptoms, triggers, time, place, affect, pathology, person, and coping. RESULTS First, depression, drugs, respiration, and stress were keywords related to panic disorder. Next, hyperventilation, palpitations, and shaking were common physical symptoms. Stress, sound, trauma, and coffee were also ranked high in terms of triggering situations. Additionally, in terms of time, morning, night, and dawn accounted for most of the time. Meanwhile, homes, schools, subways, and companies were ranked high as places of occurrence. Regarding affect, fear, tears, and embarrassment were also common. Furthermore, anxiety and depression were ranked high in terms of pathology. Finally, drugs and hospitals were ranked high in terms of coping. CONCLUSIONS These results help to understand the main characteristics of panic disorder and various aspects of unexpected panic attacks and are expected to be a basis for identifying the characteristic clinical aspects of panic disorder among Koreans.

Palak Gandhi ◽  
Amit Deol ◽  
Abhay Manchanda

Covid-19 can disrupt a person’s circadian rhythm, which can impair his sleep, leading to insomnia and snowball into depression, anxiety and other cognitive changes, not infrequently a panic disorder .Present pandemic also witnessed the shortage of essential medicines including oxygen ,unavailability of intensive care beds ,making the patients and attendants panicky, alike. It has been observed that all the efforts are being put forth to understand the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, transmission patterns and the management of the covid-19 outbreak ,but there has been a little concern put forward over the traumatizing effect on one’s mental health. This pandemic witnessed the utter paucity of qualified medical personnel to serve in wards hence forcing physiotherapy students and interns to compliment their medical counterparts. We understood the need of psychological counselling for these admitted patients and we deputed physiotherapists to render the same. The benefit of counselling was quantified as the fall in the incidence of weekly panic attacks. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapists posted in covid wards in reducing the panic attacks, since physiotherapist do have a basic knowledge of the psychology as a subject and they usually also have ample spare time in the wards, after they have completed their specialized duties. We studied 552 admitted patients of covid-19 in two medical colleges, identified patients with frequent panic attacks, who were then counselled psychologically. The effects of counselling sessions were observed for average 7 days of admission. We found on an average 64% fall in the number of panic attacks in the psychologically disturbed patients. We hence conclude that the physiotherapists posted in the covid wards should also be utilized in rendering psychological counselling to minimize occurrence of the panic attacks. Keywords: psychological, physiotherapists & Covid.

Psychosis ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Cansu Baygin ◽  
Levent Sevincok ◽  
Bilge Dogan ◽  
Doga Sevincok ◽  
Yasan Bilge Sair

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