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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 451-464
Michael Segun Ogunmuyiwa

Sales promotion and publicity are key promotional marketing tools which have assisted organizations to wax stronger in a global competitive environment. This study investigates the significance of publicity and sales promotion in Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study is survey research design while the sampling technique adopted is simple random sampling technique The Chi-square method is used to test the hypothesis based on the responses from the five-point Likert rating scale of the structured questionnaire. The findings reveal that publicity and sales promotion are veritable tools for achieving organizational marketing goals in a competitive marketing environment. It is recommended that publicity and sales promotion should be well utilized to stimulate customers demand, boost organizational reputation without detriment to product quality and performance. JEL Codes: M31, M37 Keywords: publicity, sales promotion, digital marketing era, promotion mix, marketing tools, marketing performance

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 564-568
Ming Lei ◽  
Junjian Zhang ◽  
Dongmei Wu

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> By using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) we have analyzed activationsin brain regions at different phases in migraineurs. </sec> <sec> <title>Methods:</title> Participants included 41 patients with migraine, 19 in episode and 22 in interictal phase, and 22 controls in the healthy condition. To analyze the brain function of patients and controls, ALFF was used for performing the post-processing in the resting state by scores of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> The comparison between groups of patients with migraine in the episode or interictal phases, and healthy controls showed that both episode and interictal migraine groups had the similar HAM-A and HAM-D scores (P > 0.05), but higher than that in controls (P < 0.01). For ALFF values of Episode and Interictal groups, the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates of the decreased ALFF were (−9, 42, 9), the voxel size = 215, including the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), T =−4.15, without significant differences. Patients in Interictal group were with a stronger activation at MNI coordinates (12, 51, 12), in the bilateral ACC, voxel size = 90, T =3.87. </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion:</title> ACC plays an adaptive, regulatory role in migraine and is related to multiple brain regions, which may mediate activation through descending anti-nociceptive pathways. ACC is related to opioid receptor and glutamate excitatory regulation. </sec>

J. Flodin ◽  
R. Juthberg ◽  
P. W. Ackermann

Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may prevent muscle atrophy, accelerate rehabilitation and enhance blood circulation. Yet, one major drawback is that patient compliance is impeded by the discomfort experienced. It is well-known that the size and placement of electrodes affect the comfort and effect during high-intensity NMES. However, during low-intensity NMES the effects of electrode size/placement are mostly unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how electrode size and pragmatic placement affect comfort and effect of low-intensity NMES in the thigh and gluteal muscles. Methods On 15 healthy participants, NMES-intensity (mA) was increased until visible muscle contraction, applied with three electrode sizes (2 × 2 cm, 5 × 5 cm, 5 × 9 cm), in three different configurations on quadriceps and hamstrings (short-transverse (ST), long-transverse (LT), longitudinal (L)) and two configurations on gluteus maximus (short-longitudinal (SL) and long-longitudinal (LL)). Current–density (mA/cm2) required for contraction was calculated for each electrode size. Comfort was assessed with a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0–10). Significance was set to p < 0.05 and values were expressed as median (inter-quartile range). Results On quadriceps the LT-placement exhibited significantly better comfort and lower current intensity than the ST- and L-placements. On hamstrings the L-placement resulted in the best comfort together with the lowest intensity. On gluteus maximus the LL-placement demonstrated better comfort and required less intensity than SL-placement. On all muscles, the 5 × 5 cm and 5 × 9 cm electrodes were significantly more comfortable and required less current–density for contraction than the 2 × 2 cm electrode. Conclusion During low-intensity NMES-treatment, an optimized electrode size and practical placement on each individual muscle of quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals is crucial for comfort and intensity needed for muscle contraction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shan Shan ◽  
Shuyu Wang ◽  
Xue Yang ◽  
Fan Liu ◽  
Linying Xiu

Abstract Background Previous studies did not comprehensively examine the effect of adenotonsillectomy on growth and development, emotional state, quality of life, attention ability, and cognitive dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to explore the improvement effects of adenotonsillectomy on the growth, development, quality of life, and attention ability in children with OSA. Methods This prospective single-arm study involved children with OSA admitted at The No. 980 Hospital, Joint Logistics Support Force, PLA, China (02/2017–02/2018). The Myklebust Pupil Rating Scale (PRS), Inventory of Subjective Life Quality (ISLQ), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ), and Continuous Performance Task (CPT) were examined before and at 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. Results Forty-nine patients were enrolled. They all completed the 6-month follow-up. The body mass index increased after surgery (from 18.8 ± 4.9 to 19.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2, P = 0.008). The total PRS score increased 6 months after surgery (from 73.8 ± 12.7 to 84.6 ± 10.3, P < 0.001). All aspects of the ISLQ, except anxiety experience and physical emotion, were improved at 6 months after adenotonsillectomy (all P < 0.01). The SAS score also decreased from 20.1 ± 10.0 to 12.8 ± 6.6 (P < 0.001). All six dimensions of the PSQ, as assessed by the legal guardians, decreased after adenotonsillectomy (all P < 0.01). The proportions of children with auditory and/or visual sustained attention abnormalities decreased after surgery. Conclusions After adenotonsillectomy, the PRS, ISLQ, and PSQ improved, and anxiety and auditory/visual sustained attention abnormalities decreased, suggesting positive impacts on the growth, development, quality of life, and comprehensive cognitive abilities of children with OSA.

V Monish ◽  
V Jaya ◽  
R Johnsi Rani

This study is aimed to investigate the articulatory functions of patients who have undergone tongue reconstruction following hemiglossectomy. The second aim of the study is to compare the speech intelligibility between hemiglossectomy patients who have undergone tongue reconstruction using pectoralis major myocutaneous with those hemiglossectomy patients who had undergone tongue reconstruction using radial forearm free flap.Fourteen patients who have undergone tongue reconstruction following hemiglossectomy as a treatment for oral cancer between the age of 30 to 60 years were taken up for this study. Tamil Articulation Test was used for assessing the articulatory functions of patients. The speech intelligibility of each patient was assessed using the Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped intelligibility rating scale. Analysis of articulatory errors revealed linguoalveolar consonants were more impaired when compared to other consonants. Patients with radial forearm free flap had somewhat better speech intelligibility compared to patients with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction.The type of reconstruction also impacts the speech intelligibility. Effective intervention can be planned based on the comprehensive speech evaluation and analysis of articulatory error relative to place and manner of production.

2022 ◽  
Alireza Mirzajani ◽  
Noshin Nezamabadi ◽  
Seyed Salavatian ◽  
Siamak Bagheri ◽  
Morteza Salahi ◽  

Abstract Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), regarded as one of worst aquatic weeds in the world, has been an invader in northern Iran, particularly in the Anzali Wetland. Herbicide application as a control method with respect to ecosystem health has been investigated. The effects of three herbicides, glyphosate (Roundup), Glufosinate-ammonium (Basta), and Bispyribac sodium (Nominee) were investigated on water hyacinth and on the survival of five aquatic invertebrates from the Anzali Wetland including Hemiptera, Amphipoda, Odonata, Ostracoda and Daphnia. The treatments consisted of 3 L/ha of glyphosate, 5 L/ha of Glufosinate-ammonium, and 0.3 L/ha of Bispyribac sodium. European Weed Research Council (EWRC) rating scale determining reduction of wet and dry weight of shoot was the basis of assessment to determine the effectiveness of the herbicides in the control of of water hyacinth. All herbicides were effective on water hyacinth while Roundup caused a significant reduction of shoot biomass and scored 98% on the EWRC scale. Bayesian mediation model was used to calculate total and decomposition effect of herbicides on animal groups. Based on the Bayesian mediation model, Basta showed the best performance with lowest probability of a negative effect (PEff<0=0.22). The accuracy of dosages and spraying of herbicides can be considered the most effective in inhibiting water hyacinth and the least destructive to living organisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jun-He Zhou ◽  
De-Long Zhang ◽  
Bai-Le Ning ◽  
Xiao-Juan Xue ◽  
Lin Zhao ◽  

Introduction: Perimenopausal depression is predominantly caused by hormone shock, but the underlying physical and psychological factors are still unclear.Objectives: To explore the constituent components of perimenopausal depression by dynamically depicting its influencing factors and interactive pathways from the perspective of embodied cognition.Methods: This is a randomized clinical controlled trial. In this study, electroacupuncture was compared with escitalopram. A total of 242 participants with mild to moderate perimenopausal depression were enrolled from 6 hospitals in China. Each participant had a 12-week intervention and a 12-week follow-up period. The primary outcome of this study is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), and the secondary outcome is the menopause-specific quality of life scale (MENQOL), serum Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estrogen (E2) levels.Results: The structural equation model suggested that hormone levels were not directly associated with HAMD-17 (P = 0.852), while MENQOL was statistically correlated with HAMD-17 as an intermediary variable (P &lt; 0.001). Electroacupuncture gradually showed positive impacts on MENQOL and HAMD-17 during the follow-up period (P &lt; 0.05). Cognitive impairment is the dominant dimension of perimenopausal depression.Conclusions: Hormonal shock may affect clinical symptoms and poor quality of life to induce cognitive impairment leading perimenopausal depression, and this impact on cognition is embodied. Electroacupuncture has positive effect on perimenopausal depression and quality of life.

Pablo Mangas ◽  
Reina Granados ◽  
Oscar Cervilla ◽  
Juan Carlos Sierra

Currently, no validated instrument exists for assessing the subjective experience of orgasm in the gay population. The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS), previously validated in the heterosexual population, comprises four dimensions: Affective, Sensory, Intimacy, and Rewards. This study validated it for sexual relationships in the gay population by obtaining its factorial invariance by sexual orientation and sex, its internal consistency reliability, and evidence of validity in its relationship with other variables. We assessed 1600 cisgender Spanish adults–heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians–divided into 4, sex-based groups of 400 each, according to the Kinsey scale scores. Participants reported recent experiences of orgasm in the context of sexual relationships and responded to the ORS and other scales assessing attitude toward sexual fantasies and sexual functioning. The ORS structure showed a strict multigroup-level invariance by sexual orientation and sex, confirming its four-dimensional structure. The subjective orgasm intensity was associated with a positive attitude toward sexual fantasies and sexual functioning. Scores obtained on the Affective, Intimacy, and Rewards dimensions confirmed the ability to discriminate between gay people with and without orgasmic difficulties. The ORS’s Spanish version presents good psychometric properties as a validated scale to evaluate the subjective experience of orgasm in the gay population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Filippo Cantù ◽  
Giandomenico Schiena ◽  
Domenico Sciortino ◽  
Lorena Di Consoli ◽  
Giuseppe Delvecchio ◽  

Background: Depressive episodes, especially when resistant to pharmacotherapy, are a hard challenge to face for clinicians and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Neuromodulation has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), in particular transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In this article, we present a case series of six patients who received TMS with an accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) protocol in a public healthcare setting.Methods: We enrolled a total number of six participants, affected by a treatment-resistant depressive episode, in either Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Patients underwent an accelerated iTBS protocol, targeted to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 3-week-long, with a total of 6 days of overall stimulation. On each stimulation day, the participants received 3 iTBS sessions, with a 15-min pause between them. Patients were assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), and the Mania Rating Scale (MRS). At baseline (T0), at the end of the second week (T1), and at the end of the cycle of stimulation (T2).Results: The rANOVA (repeated Analysis of Variance) statistics showed no significant effect of time on the rating scale scores, with a slight decrease in MADRS scores and a very slight increase in HAM-A and HAM-D scores. No manic symptoms emerged during the entire protocol.Conclusions: Although accelerated iTBS might be considered a less time-consuming strategy for TMS administration, useful in a public healthcare setting, our results in a real-word six-patient population with TRD did not show a significant effect. Further studies on wider samples are needed to fully elucidate the potential of accelerated iTBS protocols in treatment-resistant depression.

2022 ◽  
Suzanna Schmeelk ◽  
Alison Davis ◽  
Qiaozheng Li ◽  
Caroline Shippey ◽  
Michelle Utah ◽  

BACKGROUND Monitoring acute and long-term symptoms of COVID-19 is critical for personal and public health. Mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) can be used to support symptom monitoring at the point of need for patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE To systematically review and evaluate mHealth apps for quality, functionality, and consistency with guidelines for monitoring symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of apps for COVID-19 symptom monitoring by searching in two major app stores. The final apps were independently assessed using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality score, and guidelines from the Center for Disease Control and World Health Organization. Interrater reliability between the reviewers was calculated. RESULTS A total of 1,017 mobile apps were reviewed and 20 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the apps (90%, n=18) were designed to track acute COVID-19 symptoms, and only two addressed long-term symptoms. Overall, the apps scored high on quality, with an overall MARS rating of 3.94. The most common functionality among all apps was the instruct function (95%, n=19). The most common symptoms included in the apps for tracking were: fever and dry cough (n=18), aches and pains (n=17), difficulty breathing (n=17), tiredness, sore throat, headache, loss of taste, or smell (n=16), and diarrhea (n=15). CONCLUSIONS mHealth apps designed to monitor symptoms of COVID-19 had high quality, but the majority of apps focused almost exclusively on acute symptoms. Future apps should also incorporate monitoring long-term symptoms of COVID-19. CLINICALTRIAL N/A

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