effect size
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Alexander Diel ◽  
Sarah Weigelt ◽  
Karl F. Macdorman

The uncanny valley (UV) effect is a negative affective reaction to human-looking artificial entities. It hinders comfortable, trust-based interactions with android robots and virtual characters. Despite extensive research, a consensus has not formed on its theoretical basis or methodologies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess operationalizations of human likeness (independent variable) and the UV effect (dependent variable). Of 468 studies, 72 met the inclusion criteria. These studies employed 10 different stimulus creation techniques, 39 affect measures, and 14 indirect measures. Based on 247 effect sizes, a three-level meta-analysis model revealed the UV effect had a large effect size, Hedges’ g = 1.01 [0.80, 1.22]. A mixed-effects meta-regression model with creation technique as the moderator variable revealed face distortion produced the largest effect size, g = 1.46 [0.69, 2.24], followed by distinct entities, g = 1.20 [1.02, 1.38], realism render, g = 0.99 [0.62, 1.36], and morphing, g = 0.94 [0.64, 1.24]. Affective indices producing the largest effects were threatening, likable, aesthetics, familiarity , and eeriness , and indirect measures were dislike frequency, categorization reaction time, like frequency, avoidance , and viewing duration . This meta-analysis—the first on the UV effect—provides a methodological foundation and design principles for future research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-36
J. Shane Culpepper ◽  
Guglielmo Faggioli ◽  
Nicola Ferro ◽  
Oren Kurland

Several recent studies have explored the interaction effects between topics, systems, corpora, and components when measuring retrieval effectiveness. However, all of these previous studies assume that a topic or information need is represented by a single query. In reality, users routinely reformulate queries to satisfy an information need. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the notion of “query variations” which are essentially multiple user formulations for an information need. Like many retrieval models, some queries are highly effective while others are not. This is often an artifact of the collection being searched which might be more or less sensitive to word choice. Users rarely have perfect knowledge about the underlying collection, and so finding queries that work is often a trial-and-error process. In this work, we explore the fundamental problem of system interaction effects between collections, ranking models, and queries. To answer this important question, we formalize the analysis using ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) models to measure multiple components effects across collections and topics by nesting multiple query variations within each topic. Our findings show that query formulations have a comparable effect size of the topic factor itself, which is known to be the factor with the greatest effect size in prior ANOVA studies. Both topic and formulation have a substantially larger effect size than any other factor, including the ranking algorithms and, surprisingly, even query expansion. This finding reinforces the importance of further research in understanding the role of query rewriting in IR related tasks.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Steffen Moritz ◽  
Jingyuan Xie ◽  
Danielle Penney ◽  
Lisa Bihl ◽  
Niklas Hlubek ◽  

Abstract Background Meta-analyses agree that depression is characterized by neurocognitive dysfunctions relative to nonclinical controls. These deficits allegedly stem from impairments in functionally corresponding brain areas. Increasingly, studies suggest that some performance deficits are in part caused by negative task-taking attitudes such as poor motivation or the presence of distracting symptoms. A pilot study confirmed that these factors mediate neurocognitive deficits in depression. The validity of these results is however questionable given they were based solely on self-report measures. The present study addresses this caveat by having examiners assess influences during a neurocognitive examination, which were concurrently tested for their predictive value on performance. Methods Thirty-three patients with depression and 36 healthy controls were assessed on a battery of neurocognitive tests. The examiner completed the Impact on Performance Scale, a questionnaire evaluating mediating influences that may impact performance. Results On average, patients performed worse than controls at a large effect size. When the total score of the Impact on Performance Scale was accounted for by mediation analysis and analyses of covariance, group differences were reduced to a medium effect size. A total of 30% of patients showed impairments of at least one standard deviation below the mean. Conclusions This study confirms that neurocognitive impairment in depression is likely overestimated; future studies should consider fair test-taking conditions. We advise researchers to report percentages of patients showing performance deficits rather than relying solely on overall group differences. This prevents fostering the impression that the majority of patients exert deficits, when in fact deficits are only true for a subgroup.

Biya Tang ◽  
Kirsten Barnes ◽  
Andrew Geers ◽  
Evan Livesey ◽  
Ben Colagiuri

Abstract Background Choice has been proposed as a method of enhancing placebo effects. However, there have been no attempts to systematically evaluate the magnitude, reliability, and moderators of the influence of choice on the placebo effect. Purpose To estimate the effect size of choice on the placebo effect and identify any moderators of this effect. Methods Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed were systematically searched from inception to May 2021 for studies comparing placebo treatment with any form of choice over its administration (e.g., type, timing) to placebo treatment without choice, on any health-related outcome. Random-effects meta-analysis was then used to estimate the effect size associated with the influence of choice on the placebo effect. Meta-regression was subsequently employed to determine the moderating effect of factors such as type of choice, frequency of choice, and size of the placebo effect without choice. Results Fifteen independent studies (N = 1,506) assessing a range of conditions, including pain, discomfort, sleep difficulty, and anxiety, met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis revealed that choice did significantly enhance the placebo effect (Hedges’ g = 0.298). Size of the placebo effect without choice was the only reliable moderator of this effect, whereby a greater effect of choice was associated with smaller placebo effects without choice. Conclusions Treatment choice can effectively facilitate the placebo effect, but this effect appears more pronounced in contexts where the placebo effect without choice is weaker. Because most evidence to date is experimental, translational studies are needed to test whether providing choice in clinical scenarios where placebo effects are weaker may help boost the placebo effect and thereby improve patient outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 345
Samuel Bulteau ◽  
Andrew Laurin ◽  
Kalyane Bach-Ngohou ◽  
Morgane Péré ◽  
Marie-Anne Vibet ◽  

Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) are individually increasingly used in psychiatric research. Objective/Hypothesis: Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining tDCS and VRET with the features of wireless, 360° full immersion and embodiment and an active task to reduce height-induced anxiety. Methods: We carried out a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled study associating VRET (two 20 min sessions with a 48 h interval, during which, participants had to cross a plank at rising heights in a building in construction) with online tDCS (targeting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) with 28 participants. The primary outcomes were the sense of presence level and the tolerability. The secondary outcomes were the anxiety level (Subjective Unit of Discomfort) and the salivary cortisol concentration. Results: We confirmed the feasibility of the association between tDCS and fully embodied VRET associated with a good sense of presence without noticeable adverse effects. In both groups, a significant reduction in the fear of height was observed after two sessions, with only a small effect size of add-on tDCS (0.1) according to the SUD. The variations of cortisol concentration differed in the tDCS and sham groups. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the feasibility of the association between wireless online tDCS and active, fully embodied VRET. The optimal tDCS paradigm remains to be determined in this context to increase effect size and then adequately power future clinical studies assessing synergies between both techniques.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ning Ding ◽  
Yong Long ◽  
Changluo Li ◽  
Liudang He ◽  
Yingjie Su

Objective: This study aimed to explore the association between uric acid (UA) and blood pressure (BP) in hypertension treatment and non-treatment groups.Methods: A cross-sectional study with 6,985 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was performed. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship of UA and BP in hypertension between the treatment group (n = 5,983) and the non-treatment group (n = 1,002).Results: A significantly negative association was discovered in SBP (β, −0.36 [95% CI, −0.71, −0.01]) and DBP (β, −0.47 [95% CI, −0.69, −0.26]) in the hypertension treatment group. In the hypertension non-treatment group, the associations between UA and BP including SBP, DBP were both an inverted U-shape. The inflection point of SBP and DBP was 7 and 7.5 mg/dl, respectively. For SBP, the association was positively significant (β, 3.11 [95% CI, 1.67, 4.56]) before the inflection point of 7 mg/dl. However, after the inflection point of 7 mg/dl, the association was negative (β, −5.44 [95% CI, −8.6, −2.28]). For DBP, the inflection point was 7.5 mg/dl, and the effect size was positive (β, 1.19 [95% CI, 0.37, 2.01]) before the inflection point. However, after it, the effect size was negative (β, −3.24 [95% CI, −5.72, −0.76]).Conclusion: The association between UA and BP was negative in the hypertension treatment group. In the hypertension non-treatment group, the associations between UA and BP including SBP and DBP were both an inverted U-shape.

Shapour Fereydouni ◽  
Simon Forstmeier

AbstractPrevious research demonstrated that spiritually sensitive psychotherapy is an effective treatment for clients with depression or anxiety, with outcomes equivalent to secular control interventions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of spiritually sensitive logotherapy intervention in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in university students in Iran. Sixty students with elevated depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II, BDI-II, 22 or greater) were randomly assigned to either a twelve-session group logotherapy programme or a control group. Results showed that spiritually sensitive logotherapy significantly reduced depression, anxiety, and stress, and significantly more so than in the control group (e.g. interaction effect for BDI-II: F = 56.8, p < 0.001, with a large effect size).

2022 ◽  
Katherine L. Winters ◽  
Javier Jasso ◽  
James E Pustejovsky ◽  
Courtney Byrd

Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) typically examine narrative performance when completing a comprehensive language assessment. However, there is significant variability in the methodologies used to evaluate narration. The primary aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to a) investigate how narrative assessment type (e.g., macrostructure, microstructure, internal state language) differentiates typically developing (TD) children from children with developmental language disorder (DLD), or, TD–DLD group differences, b) identify specific narrative assessment measures (e.g., number of different words) that result in greater TD–DLD differences, and, c) evaluate participant and sample characteristics (e.g., DLD inclusionary criteria) that may uniquely influence performance differences. Method: Three electronic databases (PsychInfo, ERIC, and PubMed) and ASHAWire were searched on July 30, 2019 to locate studies that reported oral narrative language measures for both DLD and TD groups between ages 4 and 12 years; studies focusing on written narration or other developmental disorders only were excluded. Thirty-seven primary studies were identified via a three-step study selection procedure. We extracted data related to the sample participants, the narrative task(s) and assessment measures, and research design. Standardized mean differences using a bias-corrected Hedges’ g were the calculated effect sizes (N = 382). Research questions were analyzed using mixed-effects meta-regression with robust variance estimation to account for effect size dependencies. Results: Searches identified eligible studies published between 1987 and 2019. An overall meta-analysis using 382 effect sizes obtained across 37 studies showed that children with DLD had decreased narrative performance relative to TD peers, with summary estimates ranging from -0.850, 95% CI [-1.016, -0.685] to -0.794, 95% CI [-0.963, -0.624], depending on the correlation assumed. Across all models, effect size estimates showed significant heterogeneity both between and within studies, even after accounting for effect size-, sample-, and study-level predictors. Grammatical accuracy (microstructure) and story grammar (macrostructure) yielded the most consistent evidence of significant TD–DLD group differences across statistical models.Conclusions: Present findings suggest some narrative assessment measures may yield significantly different performance between children with and without DLD. However, researchers need to be consistent in their inclusionary criteria, their description of sample characteristics, and in their reporting of the correlations of measures, in order to determine which assessment measures are more likely to yield group differences.

Benita Olivier ◽  
Franso-Mari Olivier ◽  
Nkazimulo Mnguni ◽  
Oluchukwu Loveth Obiora

Purpose Previous studies found that trunk muscle asymmetry may play a role in preventing injury in cricket fast bowlers, while the association with bowling performance has not been investigated. This study aims to describe the side-to-side differences in trunk muscle thickness and determine the association between bowling performance and these side-to-side differences in trunk muscle thickness in adolescent fast bowlers. Methods In this observational cross-sectional study, bowling performance, namely ball release speed and bowling accuracy, was recorded in adolescent fast bowlers. Ultrasound imaging measured external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness. Results Fast bowlers (n = 46) with a mean age of 15.9 (±1.2) years participated. On the non-dominant side, the external oblique and internal oblique at rest were thicker than on the dominant side (external oblique: p = 0.011, effect size = 0.27; internal oblique: p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.40), while the transversus abdominus ( p = 0.72, effect size = 0.19) and lumbar multifidus ( p = 0.668, effect size = 0.04) were symmetrical. Weak correlations existed between bowling performance and the side-to-side differences in the thickness in all muscles, except for two moderate correlations: 1. The smaller the side-to-side difference in absolute thickness of the external oblique when contracted, the faster the ball release speed (Spearman's (ρ) = −0.455, p = 0.002). 2. Also, a smaller side-to-side difference in external oblique contraction ratio (Spearman's (ρ) = −0.495, p = 0.0001) was associated with faster ball release speed. Conclusions No relationship between bowling performance and side-to-side differences in internal oblique muscle thickness could be established, while more symmetrical external oblique muscles may be linked to faster ball release speeds.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12747
Peng Zan ◽  
Zijun Mao ◽  
Tao Sun

Litter quality and climate have been presumed to be the dominant factors regulating litter decomposition rates on broad spatial scales. However, the role of soil fauna on litter decomposition is poorly understood, despite the fact that it could strongly influence decomposition by fragmentation and subsequent modification of the activities of microorganisms.In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates in Chinese forests, ranging from boreal to tropical forests, based on data from 20 studies. The effects of climatic factors on decomposition rate were assessed by comparing the contribution of soil fauna to litter decomposition from studies carried out at different latitudes.The degree of influence of the soil fauna was in the order tropical (200%) > subtropical (47%) > temperate forest (28%). Comparing the effect size of soil fauna, it was found that when soil fauna was excluded, the decomposition rate, calculated using Olson’s equation, was most affected in tropical forest (−0.77), while the litter decomposition rate both subtropical (−0.36) and temperate forest (−0.19) were also suppressed to varying degrees (P < 0.001). These results highlight that soil fauna could promote litter decomposition to different extents. Using stepwise multiple linear regression, the effect size of the soil fauna was negatively correlated with the cellulose and nitrogen concentrations of the initial litter material. In Chinese forests, litter decomposition rates were reduced, on average, by 65% when soil fauna was excluded. The impact of soil fauna on decomposition was shown to be closely related to climate and litter quality.

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