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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Emma Wallis ◽  
Lizel Nacua ◽  
Jonathan Winterton

PurposeThis paper reviews changing government policy on adult education in England over the past 20 years and the funding regimes affecting adult and community learning and union-led learning, which play a major role in learning opportunities for socially excluded adults.Design/methodology/approachA review and analysis of extant literature, informed by previous involvement in the sector and ongoing collaborations.FindingsTwo decades ago, adult education in England provided a variety of learning opportunities for people who either had limited qualifications or who needed to reskill for whatever reason. Access to those opportunities has been reduced just when it is most needed.Research limitations/implicationsThis is a review and viewpoint paper based on experience in England, the limitations of which are discussed in the concluding section. Notwithstanding the institutional specificities of adult education in England, many of the implications are generic and have wider relevance beyond this country context.Practical implicationsEconomic recovery post-coronavirus (COVID) and Brexit will require more access to adult education so people can prepare for labour market re-integration. The practical implication of extending provision in adult education to support labour market integration of vulnerable workers is relevant to most countries.Originality/valueThis paper takes a holistic view of adult education, with particular attention to adult and community learning and union-led learning.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Chipozya Kosta Tembo ◽  
Adeyemi Akintola

Purpose This paper presents a review of research methodologies used in addressing problems in the financial management of property and construction journals from 2005 to 2020. Design/methodology/approach Content analysis of 258 research papers published in the Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction was carried out, enabling the exploration of research approaches, epistemology, strategies, data collection and data analysis methods used in addressing problems researched in the area of financial management of property and construction Findings The findings show that quantitative approaches and methods dominate, whereas qualitative and mixed methods were prominent in-depth understanding of a topics were needed. Interestingly, almost a third of the publications did not adopt quantitative approaches. In some journal issues, there was relatively high use of qualitative and multi-method approaches and up to 12% of the articles published over the past 16 years could be described as based on pragmatism. Research limitations/implications An important implication of this paper is that a conventionally number-based area of research does not preclude the use of qualitative and mixed approaches. The findings are only generalisable to the Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction. Practical implications Financial management researchers could benefit greatly by considering pluralistic approaches more in the design of their studies. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is an original synthesis of the articles published between 2005 and 2020. It provides new insight into the use of research methodologies by authors and how they have been combined to address their research problems. It further investigates an old issue or question about methodological choice-making using new evidence and original empirical work.

Hiroshi Ogawa ◽  
Yasuo Takehara ◽  
Shinji Naganawa

AbstractAutoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a pancreatic phenotype of IgG4-related systemic disease. Since its first description in the literature, characteristic imaging features have gradually become known to many clinicians encompassing various specialties in the past quarter century. CT and MRI have been the workhorses for imaging diagnosis of AIP. Typical features include sausage-like swelling of the focal or entire pancreas, duct-penetrating sign, a capsule-like rim of the affected lesions, and homogeneous delayed enhancement or enhanced duct sign after contrast administration, as well as characteristic combined findings reflecting coexisting pathologies in the other organs as a systemic disease. In this review, recent and future developments in CT and MRI that may help diagnose AIP are discussed, including restricted diffusion and perfusion and increased elasticity measured using MR.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12153
Arkadiusz Bartczak ◽  
Halina Kaczmarek ◽  
Michał Badocha ◽  
Michał Krzemiński ◽  
Sebastian Tyszkowski

The rate of progression of geomorphological phenomena is greatly influenced by freeze-thaw processes. In the face of air temperature increasing over the past few decades, a question of the future impact of these processes arises, notably in the temperate and cold climate zones. Using the mean, maximum and minimum daily air temperature data in the period 1951–2018 obtained from three weather stations located in the vicinity of Jeziorsko reservoir (central Poland), we have determined the mathematical correlation, described with a polynomial function, between the mean monthly air temperature and the monthly number of freeze-thaw days (FTD). A freeze-thaw day is a day when the maximum air temperature is above 0 °C while the minimum air temperature equals or is below this threshold. The number of FTDs within the study area averaged 64–71 and demonstrated a downward trend of 2–4 FTDs/10 years. The study period (1951–2018), includes a clearly marked distinct sub-period (1991–2018), when the reservoir was in operation, which experienced 58–68 FTDs. Considering the assumed rise in temperature, one should expect a further, though slightly slower, decline in the future number of FTDs. Depending on the accepted model of the temperature increase, which for the area of Poland (Central Europe) in the perspective of 30 years oscillates between +1.1 to +1.3 °C, the number of FTDs within the study area is expected to decline by −4.5 to −5.3 FTD, i.e. 6–7% and 5.4–5.5 FTD i.e. 8–9% respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Dagmar K. Tiemens ◽  
Jacqueline Nugteren ◽  
Erika Leenders ◽  
Ellen Wingbermühle ◽  
Carina A. C. M. Pittens ◽  

Abstract Background Noonan syndrome spectrum disorders are a group of disorders caused by mutations in several genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Because of a highly heterogeneity and variable phenotypical manifestations of the disorders, these children and adults have a variable number of symptoms. Inclusion of their perceived experience of their health and developmental problems in research (design) could contribute to increased relevance of the research process and outcomes. The aim of this study is to get insight in what way patients with a Noonan syndrome spectrum disorder have been involved in the research process in order to learn for future engagement practices. Methods and results To that end, the degree of engagement was measured by the eight levels of the participation ladder of Arnstein. Using a scoping review approach, 18 articles were selected in which patient engagement in the design of studies in patients with Noonan syndrome spectrum disorders was described over the past twenty years. Six of these articles reported engagement on the level of informing (level 3), 8 on the level of consultation (level 4), 2 on the level of placation (level 5)and 2 on the level of partnership (level 6). Conclusions The current results do show a positive albeit still modest development of patient engagement over the last few years. A promising way to stimulate engagement is aiming to yield insights in the most important patients’ needs by developing a patient guided research agenda. However, this is not automatically followed by patient engagement at higher levels of participation in subsequent research steps. For this reason, in the Netherlands for example, a Dutch Noonan syndrome spectrum disorders research agenda is being developed, in a collaboration between the Dutch Noonan Syndrome Foundation and national scientific and clinical professionals.

2021 ◽  
Simon Stephan ◽  
Ulrich K. Deiters

Equations of state based on intermolecular potentials are often developed about the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. Many of such EOS have been proposed in the past. In this work, 20 LJ EOS were examined regarding their performance on Brown’s characteristic curves and characteristic state points. Brown’s characteristic curves are directly related to the virial coefficients at specific state points, which can be computed exactly from the intermolecular potential. Therefore, also the second and third virial coefficient of the LJ fluid were investigated. This approach allows a comparison of available LJ EOS at extreme conditions. Physically based, empirical, and semi-theoretical LJ EOS were examined. Most investigated LJ EOS exhibit some unphysical artifacts.

2021 ◽  
Cari D. Lewis ◽  
Brenna. A. Levine ◽  
Coby Schal ◽  
Edward L. Vargo ◽  
Warren Booth

Abstract Over the past three decades, the bed bug Cimex lectularius has resurged as a prominent indoor pest on a global scale. Knockdown-associated insecticide resistance (kdr) involving the voltage-gated sodium channel, targeted by organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides, was first reported in C. lectularius within a few years of the widespread use of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and has been implicated as a significant factor contributing to the species recent resurgence. Since then, selection with pyrethroid insecticides has intensified, yet little is known regarding its short-term impacts on the frequency of kdr-associated mutations. Here, we report temporal changes in the frequencies of three kdr-associated mutations in C. lectularius populations collected across the United States from two time periods, sampled approximately a decade apart. Results reveal a significant increase in the frequencies of kdr-associated mutations over this period, and absence of the insecticide-susceptible genotype in recent collections. Furthermore, a significant transition towards infestations possessing multiple kdr-associated mutations was observed. These results suggest that the persistent use of pyrethroid insecticides over the past decade continues to impose strong selection pressure on C. lectularius populations, driving the proliferation of kdr-associated mutations. They demonstrate that, if unabated, strong anthropogenic selection can drive the rapid evolution of adaptive traits.

2021 ◽  
Nora V Carlson ◽  
Michael Griesser

Mobbing is an important anti-predator behavior where prey harass and attack a predator to lower the immediate and long-term risk posed by predators, warn others, and communicate about the predator’s threat. While this behavior has been of interest to humans since antiquity, and aspects of it have been well researched for the past 50 years, we still know little about its ecology and the evolutionary pressures that gave rise to this ubiquitous anti- predator behavior. In this review, we explore what mobbing is, how it is used, what its functions are thought to be, its use as a proxy for cognition, before providing suggestions for specific future avenues of research necessary to improve our understanding of mobbing in its ecological and evolutionary context.

Joanne F Garbincius ◽  
John W. Elrod

The uptake of calcium into and extrusion of calcium from the mitochondrial matrix is a fundamental biological process that has critical effects on cellular metabolism, signaling, and survival. Disruption of mitochondrial calcium (mCa2+) cycling is implicated in numerous acquired diseases such as heart failure, stroke, neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cancer, and is genetically linked to several inherited neuromuscular disorders. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for mCa2+ exchange therefore holds great promise for the treatment of these diseases. The past decade has seen the genetic identification of many of the key proteins that mediate mitochondrial calcium uptake and efflux. Here, we present an overview of the phenomenon of mCa2+ transport, and a comprehensive examination of the molecular machinery that mediates calcium flux across the inner mitochondrial membrane: the mitochondrial uniporter complex (consisting of MCU, EMRE, MICU1, MICU2, MICU3, MCUB, and MCUR1), NCLX, LETM1, the mitochondrial ryanodine receptor, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We then consider the physiological implications of mCa2+ flux and evaluate how alterations in mCa2+ homeostasis contribute to human disease. This review concludes by highlighting opportunities and challenges for therapeutic intervention in pathologies characterized by aberrant mCa2+ handling and by summarizing critical unanswered questions regarding the biology of mCa2+ flux.

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