obsessive compulsive
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-8
Mohan Belbase ◽  
Jyoti Adhikari

Introduction: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a common, chronic and disabling disorder marked by obsessions and/or compulsions. This study tries to find the demographic profiles, severity and response of antiobsessive drugs in young and adult patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Aims: To study the socio-demographic profile, severity and treatment response to commonly used antiobsessive medications in male and female, and young and adults. Methods: This is a hospital based experimental study done in patients attending to psychiatry out-patient department over one year from February 2020 to January 2021.  Diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder was made based on International Classification of Disease- 10 criteria for research. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale check list (adult and children) was applied in those patients and recorded accordingly on baseline (week 0) and patients were treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants in therapeutic doses for 6 weeks. On follow up at week 6, they were again reassessed and the scores were recorded and analyzed. Results: Among the total study subject (N-52), 26(50 %) were male and 26(50 %) were females. Patients in age bracket 20-29 is the most common age group representing 18(34.6 %). Mean age of patients is 30.36±11.93 years (28.65±9.80 in male and 32.04±13.73 in female). Severe form of obsessive compulsive disorder was the most common type that represent 33(63.5%) followed by moderate 16(30.8%) and extreme 3(5.7%). There is a difference of treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female with statistical significance (p= 0.039). Conclusion: This study shows that obsessive compulsive disorder is most commonly found in 20-29 age group and the severe type is the most common. There is a significant difference in treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female.

Tali M. Ball ◽  
Lisa A. Gunaydin

AbstractAvoiding stimuli that predict danger is required for survival. However, avoidance can become maladaptive in individuals who overestimate threat and thus avoid safe situations as well as dangerous ones. Excessive avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This avoidance prevents patients from confronting maladaptive threat beliefs, thereby maintaining disordered anxiety. Avoidance is associated with high levels of psychosocial impairment yet is poorly understood at a mechanistic level. Many objective laboratory assessments of avoidance measure adaptive avoidance, in which an individual learns to successfully avoid a truly noxious stimulus. However, anxiety disorders are characterized by maladaptive avoidance, for which there are fewer objective laboratory measures. We posit that maladaptive avoidance behavior depends on a combination of three altered neurobehavioral processes: (1) threat appraisal, (2) habitual avoidance, and (3) trait avoidance tendency. This heterogeneity in underlying processes presents challenges to the objective measurement of maladaptive avoidance behavior. Here we first review existing paradigms for measuring avoidance behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms in both human and animal models, and identify how existing paradigms relate to these neurobehavioral processes. We then propose a new framework to improve the translational understanding of maladaptive avoidance behavior by adapting paradigms to better differentiate underlying processes and mechanisms and applying these paradigms in clinical populations across diagnoses with the goal of developing novel interventions to engage specific identified neurobehavioral targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Guan Ning Lin ◽  
Weichen Song ◽  
Weidi Wang ◽  
Pei Wang ◽  
Huan Yu ◽  

Trio-based whole-genome sequencing identified the role of chromatin modification in OCD pathology.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Norbert Kathmann ◽  
Tanja Jacobi ◽  
Björn Elsner ◽  
Benedikt Reuter

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proven its efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To test generalizability to routine care settings, we conducted an effectiveness study to provide naturalistic outcome data and their predictors. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Pre-post changes in symptoms and impairment as well as response rates were determined in a naturalistic OCD sample (intention-to-treat, ITT, <i>n</i> = 393). Patients received individual CBT for OCD adopting an exposure-based, non-manualized treatment format. Linear and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify associations of sociodemographic and clinical variables with symptom change. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Effect size in ITT patients amounted to <i>d</i> = 1.47 in primary outcome (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Y-BOCS). Remission rates were 46.3% (ITT), 52.0% (completers), and 18.2% (non-completers). The rates of treatment response without remission, no change, and deterioration in the ITT sample were 13.2, 38, and 3%, respectively. Initial symptom severity, comorbid personality disorder, and unemployment were associated with a poorer outcome, and previous medication with a better outcome. Comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other clinical or sociodemographic variables showed no effects on symptom change. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Outcomes in this large observational trial in a naturalistic setting correspond to available RCT findings suggesting that CBT for OCD should be strongly recommended for dissemination in routine care. Targets for further research include early prediction of non-response and development of alternative treatment strategies for patients who respond insufficiently.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 385
Pietro De Rossi ◽  
Italo Pretelli ◽  
Deny Menghini ◽  
Barbara D’Aiello ◽  
Silvia Di Vara ◽  

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in school-age children, and it is usually associated with a significant impairment in global functioning. Traditionally, boys with ADHD are more likely to be referred for clinical assessments due to a higher prevalence of externalizing symptoms. However, as regards gender-related differential clinical characteristics between boys and girls with ADHD, further investigation is warranted in light of conflicting results found in currently available literature. In fact, a more precise clinical characterization could help increase appropriate diagnoses and treatment planning. In this context, we carried out a retrospective observational study on 715 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD from 2018 to 2020 at our center, in order to describe their gender-related clinical characteristics. Boys displayed higher average IQs, but they were comparable to girls in functional impairments and adaptive skills. Girls displayed higher scores on the Attention Problems subscale of the CBCL 6–18 and on several CPRS-R:L subscales, suggesting higher general ADHD symptom severity. Boys showed higher scores on CBCL 6–18 subscales, such as withdrawn/depressed, internalizing, and obsessive-compulsive problems. In conclusion, girls showed more severe ADHD features and lower IQ in clinically referred settings, while boys showed more internalizing problems and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Katherine Parkin ◽  
Shanquan Chen ◽  
Marjan Biria ◽  
James Plaistow ◽  
Helen Beckwith ◽  

Abstract Background Obsessive–compulsive symptoms (OCS) are commonly associated with clozapine treatment but are frequently overlooked by clinicians despite their potential impact on patients' quality of life. In this study, we explored whether OCS severity impacted subjective wellbeing and general functioning, independently of depressive and psychotic symptoms. Methods We used anonymised electronic healthcare records from a large cohort of patients who were treated with clozapine and assessed annually for OCS, wellbeing, general functioning, and psychopathology using standardised scales as part of routine clinical practice. We used statistical mixed linear model techniques to evaluate the longitudinal influence of OCS severity on wellbeing and general functioning. Results A total of 184 patients were included, with 527 face-to-face assessments and 64.7% evaluated three or more times. Different linear mixed models demonstrated that OCS in patients treated with clozapine were associated with significantly worse wellbeing scores, independently of depression and psychotic symptoms, but OCS did not impair general functioning. Obsessional thinking and hoarding behaviour, but not compulsions, were significantly associated with the impact on wellbeing, which may be attributable to the ego-syntonic nature of the compulsions. Conclusions Given the frequent occurrence of OCS and their negative impact on wellbeing, we encourage clinicians to routinely assess and treat OCS in patients who are taking clozapine.

2022 ◽  
Marietta Tzirini ◽  
Yiftach Roth ◽  
Tal Harmelech ◽  
Samuel Zibman ◽  
Gaby S Pell ◽  

The FDA cleared deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (Deep TMS) with the H7 coil for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment, following a double-blinded placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Two years later the FDA cleared TMS with the D-B80 coil on the basis of substantial equivalence. In order to investigate the induced electric field characteristics of the two coils, these were placed at the treatment position for OCD over the prefrontal cortex of a head phantom, and the field distribution was measured. Additionally, numerical simulations were performed in eight Population Head Model repository models with two sets of conductivity values and three Virtual Population anatomical head models and their homogeneous versions. The H7 was found to induce significantly higher maximal electric fields (p<0.0001, t=11.08) and to stimulate two to five times larger volumes in the brain (p<0.0001, t=6.71). The rate of decay of electric field with distance is significantly slower for the H7 coil (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). The field at the scalp is 306% of the field at a 3 cm depth with the D-B80, and 155% with the H7 coil. The H7 induces significantly higher intensities in broader volumes within the brain and in specific brain regions known to be implicated in OCD (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)) compared to the D-B80. Significant field ≥ 80 V/m is induced by the H7 (D-B80) in 15% (1%) of the dACC, 78% (29%) of the pre-SMA, 50% (20%) of the dlPFC, 30% (12%) of the OFC and 15% (1%) of the IFG. Considering the substantial differences between the two coils, the clinical efficacy in OCD should be tested and verified separately for each coil.

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