compulsive disorder
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Muhammad Chutiyami ◽  
Allen M. Y. Cheong ◽  
Dauda Salihu ◽  
Umar Muhammad Bello ◽  
Dorothy Ndwiga ◽  

ObjectiveThis meta-review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of overall mental health of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodWe conducted a comprehensive literature search on Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE. A predefined eligibility criterion was used to screen the articles. The methodology quality of eligible studies was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for systematic reviews. The data were narratively synthesised in line with the meta-review aim.ResultForty systematic reviews (represented as K = 40), which reported data from 1,828 primary studies (N) and 3,245,768 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The findings from a pooled prevalence indicate that anxiety (16–41%, K = 30, N = 701), depression (14–37%, K = 28, N = 584), and stress/post-traumatic stress disorder (18.6–56.5%, K = 24, N = 327) were the most prevailing COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health conditions affecting healthcare workers. Other reported concerns included insomnia, burnout, fear, obsessive-compulsive disorder, somatization symptoms, phobia, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Considering regions/countries, the highest anxiety was reported in the United-Kingdom [22.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):7–38, N = 4] compared to other countries, while the highest depression was in the Middle-East, (41, 95% CI:16–60, N = 5) and stress in the Eastern Mediterranean region (61.6, 95% CI:56.4–66.8, N = 2) compared to other regions. The most significant risk factors include female gender, younger age, being a nurse, and frontline professional. The most-reported coping strategies include individual/group psychological support, family/relative support, training/orientation, and the adequacy of personal protective equipment.ConclusionIt was concluded that healthcare professionals (nurses, doctors, allied health) have experienced various mental health issues during COVID-19 pandemic. The meta-review, therefore, recommends targeted interventions and health policies that address specific mental health issues to support health professionals worldwide during the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and similar future health crises.Systematic Review Registration, identifier: CRD42021262001.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-8
Mohan Belbase ◽  
Jyoti Adhikari

Introduction: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a common, chronic and disabling disorder marked by obsessions and/or compulsions. This study tries to find the demographic profiles, severity and response of antiobsessive drugs in young and adult patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Aims: To study the socio-demographic profile, severity and treatment response to commonly used antiobsessive medications in male and female, and young and adults. Methods: This is a hospital based experimental study done in patients attending to psychiatry out-patient department over one year from February 2020 to January 2021.  Diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder was made based on International Classification of Disease- 10 criteria for research. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale check list (adult and children) was applied in those patients and recorded accordingly on baseline (week 0) and patients were treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants in therapeutic doses for 6 weeks. On follow up at week 6, they were again reassessed and the scores were recorded and analyzed. Results: Among the total study subject (N-52), 26(50 %) were male and 26(50 %) were females. Patients in age bracket 20-29 is the most common age group representing 18(34.6 %). Mean age of patients is 30.36±11.93 years (28.65±9.80 in male and 32.04±13.73 in female). Severe form of obsessive compulsive disorder was the most common type that represent 33(63.5%) followed by moderate 16(30.8%) and extreme 3(5.7%). There is a difference of treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female with statistical significance (p= 0.039). Conclusion: This study shows that obsessive compulsive disorder is most commonly found in 20-29 age group and the severe type is the most common. There is a significant difference in treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female.

2022 ◽  
Sourav Dakua

The aim of this ‘literature review’-based argumentative paper has been to find out the risks of developing psychotic and depressive disorders in patients having been treated with antidepressants. In order to reach a resounding supposition, this literature review-based argumentative study had taken an incisive look into previous research works and meta-analysis, which in effect had underscored the risks of antidepressant-induced psychotic and depressive disorders in patients with depression as well as psychosis even as the protagonists of antidepressant drug classes could not be undermined given their upscaled magnitude of benefits. While following a probing interpretation of past studies, this might be demystified that antidepressants could lead to psychotic events and depressive disorders in patients of all age groups with children and young adults being more susceptible to develop psychosis. The psychotic episodes could even be developed during initial phase of treatments in patients suffering from depressive and psychotic disorders such as bipolar mood disorder, unipolar depression, major depressive disorders, mania, OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), delusional depression (psychotic depression), schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders alongside multiple somatic symptoms among others as well. Concomitantly, with efficaciousness of antidepressants in major depressive disorder still remaining a subject to utter dubitability, different antidepressant drug classes were found to be associated with a considerable scale of adverse effects after carrying out protracted arguments on findings of evidence-based past studies, meta-analysis of previous researches and relevant clinical cases. Therefore, following a systematized approach towards past studies, this argumentative research has reached a coherent conclusion that antidepressants are likely to cause psychotic events and exaggeration of depressive disorders up to some extent in several cases. Hence, there is a stipulation of individual risk-benefit assessment and intricate history taking in patients being contemplated for antidepressant drugs alongside a close observation and follow-up in patients of all age groups after introducing antidepressant medications.

Tali M. Ball ◽  
Lisa A. Gunaydin

AbstractAvoiding stimuli that predict danger is required for survival. However, avoidance can become maladaptive in individuals who overestimate threat and thus avoid safe situations as well as dangerous ones. Excessive avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This avoidance prevents patients from confronting maladaptive threat beliefs, thereby maintaining disordered anxiety. Avoidance is associated with high levels of psychosocial impairment yet is poorly understood at a mechanistic level. Many objective laboratory assessments of avoidance measure adaptive avoidance, in which an individual learns to successfully avoid a truly noxious stimulus. However, anxiety disorders are characterized by maladaptive avoidance, for which there are fewer objective laboratory measures. We posit that maladaptive avoidance behavior depends on a combination of three altered neurobehavioral processes: (1) threat appraisal, (2) habitual avoidance, and (3) trait avoidance tendency. This heterogeneity in underlying processes presents challenges to the objective measurement of maladaptive avoidance behavior. Here we first review existing paradigms for measuring avoidance behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms in both human and animal models, and identify how existing paradigms relate to these neurobehavioral processes. We then propose a new framework to improve the translational understanding of maladaptive avoidance behavior by adapting paradigms to better differentiate underlying processes and mechanisms and applying these paradigms in clinical populations across diagnoses with the goal of developing novel interventions to engage specific identified neurobehavioral targets.

2022 ◽  
Natalie Clinkscales ◽  
Katherine Berlouis ◽  
Lisa Golds ◽  
Angus MacBeth

Background: Anxiety disorders are a relatively common occurring mental health issue during pregnancy and the perinatal period. There is evidence that untreated perinatal anxiety is a risk factor for adverse outcomes for mother and infant. Despite their potential acceptability to users, psychological interventions research for this population is still in its infancy. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing perinatal anxiety. Method: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Databases searched included EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, MIDIRS, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Search terms included: Psychological Therapy, Perinatal Period, Antenatal, Postnatal, Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Phobia. Results: The search strategy identified 2025 studies. A total of 21 studies published between 2004 and 2021 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Of those, 17 were included in the meta-analysis. Overall results indicated that psychological interventions were more effective than control conditions in reducing symptoms of perinatal anxiety with a medium post treatment effect size. Significant effect sizes were also identified for online, face-to-face, group and guided self-help treatment modalities. Limitations: A small sample of studies are represented and limited to articles published in English. The review was unable to draw specific conclusions about what works (i.e. therapeutic modality/delivery) for whom (i.e. specific diagnoses) due to purposefully broad inclusion criteria. The longer-term effects of psychological interventions for perinatal anxiety and infant outcomes could not be established. Conclusions: This review demonstrates that psychological interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of both anxiety and comorbid anxiety and depression in the antenatal and postnatal periods. The results also demonstrate the efficacy of delivering such interventions in multiple settings, including online, and in group format. Further research is required to optimise treatment delivery to individual needs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 263183182110685
Somashekhar Bijjal ◽  
Jannatbi Iti ◽  
Fakirappa B. Ganiger ◽  
Jitendra Mugali ◽  
Raju G. Mahadevappa

Background: According to World Health Organization, proportion of women experiencing either physical or sexual violence ranges between 15% and 17%. In India, one-third of women population in 15 to 49 age group experiences sexual assault at least once in their life, predisposing them to develop psychiatric disorders. Aims and Objectives: To assess prevalence of psychiatry disorders among victims of assault attending tertiary care center. Methodology: It is a retrospective, record-based study which was conducted among 216 victims of assault attending one-stop center. Study was started after obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and permissions from concerned authorities and confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. Data was analyzed by frequency, proportion, and chi-square tests using SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 216 victims, 50% were physically assaulted and 50% were sexually assaulted. Among 108 sexual assault cases, 81.5% victims were raped, 2.7% were sexually harassed, 1.9% was sexually abused, and 13.9% children were sexually abused. A total of 30.1% had adjustment disorder, 11.6% had dysthymia, 8.3% had mild depression, 5.6% had moderate depression, 0.5% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 0.5% had psychosis, and 43.5% did not have any psychiatry disorder. Conclusion: Majority of the sexually assaulted victims belonged to age group 16 to 20 years and had adjustment disorder, whereas physically assaulted victims belonged to age group above 36 years and had dysthymia and depression. Special services like medical care, counseling, legal aid, and so on should be provided to victims free of charge. Awareness and sensitization programs should be done through active community participation for the welfare of children and women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Guan Ning Lin ◽  
Weichen Song ◽  
Weidi Wang ◽  
Pei Wang ◽  
Huan Yu ◽  

Trio-based whole-genome sequencing identified the role of chromatin modification in OCD pathology.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Norbert Kathmann ◽  
Tanja Jacobi ◽  
Björn Elsner ◽  
Benedikt Reuter

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proven its efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To test generalizability to routine care settings, we conducted an effectiveness study to provide naturalistic outcome data and their predictors. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Pre-post changes in symptoms and impairment as well as response rates were determined in a naturalistic OCD sample (intention-to-treat, ITT, <i>n</i> = 393). Patients received individual CBT for OCD adopting an exposure-based, non-manualized treatment format. Linear and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify associations of sociodemographic and clinical variables with symptom change. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Effect size in ITT patients amounted to <i>d</i> = 1.47 in primary outcome (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Y-BOCS). Remission rates were 46.3% (ITT), 52.0% (completers), and 18.2% (non-completers). The rates of treatment response without remission, no change, and deterioration in the ITT sample were 13.2, 38, and 3%, respectively. Initial symptom severity, comorbid personality disorder, and unemployment were associated with a poorer outcome, and previous medication with a better outcome. Comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other clinical or sociodemographic variables showed no effects on symptom change. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Outcomes in this large observational trial in a naturalistic setting correspond to available RCT findings suggesting that CBT for OCD should be strongly recommended for dissemination in routine care. Targets for further research include early prediction of non-response and development of alternative treatment strategies for patients who respond insufficiently.

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