shear modulus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 62 (1) ◽  
pp. 101098
Mohammad Bagher Asadi ◽  
Rolando P. Orense ◽  
Mohammad Sadeq Asadi ◽  
Michael J. Pender

Geophysics ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-49
Yu-Tai Wu

Beishih Village of Hsinhua Township in southern Taiwan is a unique location for studying soil liquefaction. Soil liquefaction was observed at the same site after earthquakes in 1946, 2010, and 2016, each of which had a Richter magnitude greater than six. This recurrence provides an opportunity for analyzing soil condition variations resulting from soil liquefaction. Seismic data sets were collected in 2011, 2014, 2016, and 2017. We used seismic refraction tomography and the multichannel analysis of surface waves to estimate P- and S-wave velocities. In S-wave velocity profiles, low shear velocity zones were located beneath sand volcanoes shortly after two earthquakes and disappeared 4 years after a 2010 earthquake. However, the P-wave velocity is less sensitive to soil condition changes, possibly because groundwater obscures the effect of soil liquefaction on velocity profiles. In addition, we used seismic wave velocities to determine the importance of soil properties such as Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and porosity to identify the cause of the low shear velocity zone. Notably, although porosity decreased after soil grain rearrangement, sand and clay mixing increased the Poisson’s ratio, reducing the shear modulus of the soil. In addition, a soil layer between 2 and 7 m and a deeper layer below 10 m that resulted in sand volcanoes were both liquefied. We also considered how the evaluation of soil liquefaction potential could be affected by long-term variations in soil conditions and changes resulting from liquefaction. The factor of safety was used to evaluate the liquefaction potential of the site. The results revealed that the assessment conducted long after the earthquake underestimated risk because the soil developed shear strength after the earthquake.

2022 ◽  
Jiping Zhou ◽  
Yuyi Lin ◽  
Jiehong Zhang ◽  
Xingxian Si’tu ◽  
Ji Wang ◽  

Abstract The mechanical properties of deep fascia (i.e. an index of stiffness) strongly affect the development of muscle pathologies, and muscular actions, such as compartment syndromes. Actually, a clear understanding of the mechanical characterization of muscle deep fascia still lacks. The present study focuses on examining the reliability of ultrasonic shear wave elastography device (USWE) in quantifying the shear modulus of gastrocnemius fascia in healthy individual and the device’s abilities to examine the shear modulus of gastrocnemius deep fascia during ankle dorsiflexion. Twenty-one healthy males participated in the study (age: 21.48±1.17 years). The shear modulus of the medial gastrocnemius fascia (MGF) and lateral gastrocnemius fascia (LGF) were quantified at different angles using USWE during passive lengthening. The operators took turns to measure each subject’s MGF and LGF over 1-hour period and by operator B with a 2-hour interval. In the intra-operator test, the same subjects participated at the same time 5 days later. The intra-rater [ Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.846-0.965)] and inter-rater (ICC = 0.877-0.961) reliabilities for measuring the shear modulus of the MGF and LGF were rated as both excellent, and the standard error in measurement (SEM) was 3.49 kPa, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was 9.68 kPa. Regardless of the ankle angle, the shear modulus of the LGF were significant greater than that of the MGF (p < 0.001). The significant increase in the shear modulus both of the MGF and LGF were observed at neutral position compared to the relaxed position. This results indicate that the USWE is a technique to assess the shear modulus of gastrocnemius fascia and detect its dynamic changes during ankle dorsiflexion. USWE can be used for biomechanical study and intervention experiments of deep fascia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 98-104
Sandesh Bhaktha ◽  
Sriharsha Hegde ◽  
Sathish Rao U.

Magnetorheological Elastomers (MRE) endure a change in mechanical properties with the application of an externally applied magnetic field. It consists of an elastomeric matrix reinforced with ferromagnetic powdered particles. This paper focuses on the investigation of viscoelastic properties of Room Temperature Vulcanized (RTV) silicone based isotropic MRE in sandwich beam configuration by varying the volume percentage of Carbonyl Iron Powdered (CIP) reinforcement. Viscoelastic properties of the MRE core material were calculated by following the ASTM E756-05 standard. The magnetic field was applied by employing a Halbach array which was numerically analyzed using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM). The magnetic field was varied up to 0.15 T. Loss factor and shear modulus were found to be strongly influenced by the percentage content of CIP. The loss factor and shear modulus of 30% MRE at 0.15 T were higher than other tested samples. The variation of natural frequency with respect to the addition of CIP was validated numerically using Modal analysis conducted in Hyperworks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 141 ◽  
pp. 104518
Nallala S.C. Reddy ◽  
Huan He ◽  
Kostas Senetakis

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