soil conditions
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Speranza Claudia Panico ◽  
Valeria Memoli ◽  
Lucia Santorufo ◽  
Stefania Aiello ◽  
Rossella Barile ◽  

The knowledge of the effects of fire on soil properties is of particular concern in Mediterranean areas, where the effects of vegetation type are still scarce also. This research aimed: to assess the properties of burnt soils under different vegetation types; to highlight the soil abiotic properties driving the soil microbial biomass and activity under each vegetation type; to compare the biological response in unburnt and burnt soils under the same vegetation type, and between unburnt and burnt soils under different vegetation types. The soils were collected at a Mediterranean area where a large wildfire caused a 50% loss of the previous vegetation types (holm oak: HO, pine: P, black locust: BL, and herbs: H), and were characterized by abiotic (pH, water, and organic matter contents; N concentrations; and C/N ratios) and biotic (microbial and fungal biomasses, microbial respiration, soil metabolic quotient, and hydrolase and dehydrogenase activities) properties. The biological response was evaluated by the Integrative Biological Responses (IBR) index. Before the fire, organic matter and N contents were significantly higher in P than H soils. After the fire, significant increases of pH, organic matter, C/N ratio, microbial biomass and respiration, and hydrolase and dehydrogenase activities were observed in all the soils, especially under HO. In conclusion, the post-fire soil conditions were less favorable for microorganisms, as the IBR index decreased when compared to the pre-fire conditions.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12777
Svenja Meyer ◽  
Dominika Kundel ◽  
Klaus Birkhofer ◽  
Andreas Fliessbach ◽  
Stefan Scheu

Higher frequencies of summer droughts are predicted to change soil conditions in the future affecting soil fauna communities and their biotic interactions. In agroecosystems drought effects on soil biota may be modulated by different management practices that alter the availability of different food resources. Recent studies on the effect of drought on soil microarthropods focused on measures of abundance and diversity. We here additionally investigated shifts in trophic niches of Collembola and Oribatida as indicated by stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N). We simulated short-term summer drought by excluding 65% of the ambient precipitation in conventionally and organically managed winter wheat fields on the DOK trial in Switzerland. Stable isotope values suggest that plant litter and root exudates were the most important resources for Collembola (Isotoma caerulea, Isotomurus maculatus and Orchesella villosa) and older plant material and microorganisms for Oribatida (Scheloribates laevigatus and Tectocepheus sarekensis). Drought treatment and farming systems did not affect abundances of the studied species. However, isotope values of some species increased in organically managed fields indicating a higher proportion of microorganisms in their diet. Trophic niche size, a measure of both isotope values combined, decreased with drought and under organic farming in some species presumably due to favored use of plants as basal resource instead of algae and microorganisms. Overall, our results suggest that the flexible usage of resources may buffer effects of drought and management practices on the abundance of microarthropods in agricultural systems.

Soil Systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Sarah M. Denton-Thompson ◽  
Emma J. Sayer

Soil micronutrients limit crop productivity in many regions worldwide, and micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people globally. Microbial biofertilizers could combat these issues by inoculating arable soils with microorganisms that mobilize micronutrients, increasing their availability to crop plants in an environmentally sustainable and cost-effective manner. However, the widespread application of biofertilizers is limited by complex micronutrient–microbe–plant interactions, which reduce their effectiveness under field conditions. Here, we review the current state of seven micronutrients in food production. We examine the mechanisms underpinning microbial micronutrient mobilization in natural ecosystems and synthesize the state-of-knowledge to improve our overall understanding of biofertilizers in food crop production. We demonstrate that, although soil micronutrient concentrations are strongly influenced by soil conditions, land management practices can also substantially affect micronutrient availability and uptake by plants. The effectiveness of biofertilizers varies, but several lines of evidence indicate substantial benefits in co-applying biofertilizers with conventional inorganic or organic fertilizers. Studies of micronutrient cycling in natural ecosystems provide examples of microbial taxa capable of mobilizing multiple micronutrients whilst withstanding harsh environmental conditions. Research into the mechanisms of microbial nutrient mobilization in natural ecosystems could, therefore, yield effective biofertilizers to improve crop nutrition under global changes.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Michal Allman ◽  
Zuzana Dudáková ◽  
Martin Jankovský ◽  
Mária Vlčková ◽  
Vladimír Juško ◽  

Soil disturbance and compaction are inherent in ground-based harvesting operations. These changes are affected by numerous factors, related mainly to the technical parameters of the machines, soil conditions, and the technology used. This study aimed to analyze the changes of surface layers of soil caused by skidder traffic without loads on the Cambisols of Western Carpathians. We observed changes in the soil bulk density and penetration resistance. The results showed that only machine traffic caused a 0.32 to 0.35 (g cm−3) increase in soil bulk density. Besides machine traffic, bulk density was affected by soil moisture content. Penetration resistance of soil increased by 0.15 to 1.04 (MPa) after traffic of 40 machines. Penetration resistance showed a lower increase after traffic, and regression and correlation analysis proved a relationship between penetration resistance, skeleton content, and penetration depth, besides the number of machine passes (r = 0.33–0.55). Observing the changes in the physical properties of soils caused by machine traffic allows for a more detailed view of the effects of forest harvesting machinery on forest soils.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-70
Luis Moya ◽  
Fernando Garcia ◽  
Carlos Gonzales ◽  
Miguel Diaz ◽  
Carlos Zavala ◽  

Abstract. Lima, Peru's capital, has about 9.6 million inhabitants and keeps attracting more residents searching for a better life. Many citizens, without access to housing subsidies, live in informal housing and shack settlements. A typical social phenomenon in Lima is the sudden illegal occupation of areas for urban settlements. When such areas are unsafe against natural hazards, it is important to relocate such a population to avoid significant future losses. In this communication, we present an application of Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the extension of a recent occupation of an area with unfavorable soil conditions against earthquakes.

Muhammad Mahroz Hussain ◽  
Irshad Bibi ◽  
Fawad Ali ◽  
Zulfiqar Ahmad Saqib ◽  
Muhammad Shahid ◽  

Geophysics ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-49
Yu-Tai Wu

Beishih Village of Hsinhua Township in southern Taiwan is a unique location for studying soil liquefaction. Soil liquefaction was observed at the same site after earthquakes in 1946, 2010, and 2016, each of which had a Richter magnitude greater than six. This recurrence provides an opportunity for analyzing soil condition variations resulting from soil liquefaction. Seismic data sets were collected in 2011, 2014, 2016, and 2017. We used seismic refraction tomography and the multichannel analysis of surface waves to estimate P- and S-wave velocities. In S-wave velocity profiles, low shear velocity zones were located beneath sand volcanoes shortly after two earthquakes and disappeared 4 years after a 2010 earthquake. However, the P-wave velocity is less sensitive to soil condition changes, possibly because groundwater obscures the effect of soil liquefaction on velocity profiles. In addition, we used seismic wave velocities to determine the importance of soil properties such as Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and porosity to identify the cause of the low shear velocity zone. Notably, although porosity decreased after soil grain rearrangement, sand and clay mixing increased the Poisson’s ratio, reducing the shear modulus of the soil. In addition, a soil layer between 2 and 7 m and a deeper layer below 10 m that resulted in sand volcanoes were both liquefied. We also considered how the evaluation of soil liquefaction potential could be affected by long-term variations in soil conditions and changes resulting from liquefaction. The factor of safety was used to evaluate the liquefaction potential of the site. The results revealed that the assessment conducted long after the earthquake underestimated risk because the soil developed shear strength after the earthquake.

Dragana Miljakovic ◽  
Jelena Marinković ◽  
Maja Ignjatov ◽  
Dragana Milosević ◽  
Zorica Nikolić ◽  

The competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation strain against indigenous rhizobia was examined in a soil pot experiment. The effect of inoculation strain was evaluated under different soil conditions: with or without previously grown soybean and applied commercial inoculant. Molecular identification of inoculation strain and investigated rhizobial isolates, obtained from nodules representing inoculated treatments, was performed based on 16S rDNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequencing. Inoculation strain showed a significant effect on the investigated parameters in both soils. Higher nodule occupancy (45% vs. 18%), nodule number (111% vs. 5%), nodule dry weight (49% vs. 9%), shoot length (15% vs. 7%), root length (31% vs. 13%), shoot dry weight (34% vs. 11%), shoot nitrogen content (27% vs. 2%), and nodule nitrogen content (9% vs. 5%) was detected in soil without previously grown soybean and applied commercial inoculant. Soil had a significant effect on the shoot, root and nodule nitrogen content, while interaction of experimental factors significantly altered dry weight and nitrogen content of shoots, roots and nodules, as well as number of nodules. Nodulation parameters were significantly related with shoot dry weight, shoot and nodule nitrogen content. Symbiotic performance of inoculation strains in the field could be improved through co-selection for their competitiveness and effectiveness.  

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