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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-132
Jiangyuan Zhou

Global learning has become a fundamental aspect of international education. Yet, a clear understanding of global learning and how to develop it remain unclear. Using the dynamic systems approach, this paper analyzed the reasons, methods, and knowledge, skills, and attitudes(KSA) of global learning in higher education. Global learning is the higher education institutions’ critical response to globalization. It is the essential learning outcome of comprehensive internationalization of curriculum requiring students to develop KSA about the external world and their internal selves in their daily lives across local and global communities. With survey results from 142 undergraduate students in one U.S. university and a global learning rubric and publication, this paper demonstrated how global learning is interpreted and approached differently at various levels and further proposed pedagogical approaches to enhance global learning in higher education.

Shruti Sunil Ajankar ◽  
Aditi Rajesh Nimodiya

Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the most important technologies in the world today. In the future, intelligent machines will replace or enhance human capabilities in many areas. Artificial Intelligence is impacting the future of virtually every industry and every human being. AI has acted as the main driver of emerging technologies like big data, robotics, and IoT, and it will continue to act as a technological innovator for the foreseeable future. AI is simply the study of how to make computer do things which at the moment people do the better. There are many ways to define AI, but one simple definition is “intelligence demonstrated by machines”. Primary goal of AI is to improve computer behaviour so that it can be called intelligent. AI is ubiquitous and is not only limited to computer science but has evolved to include other areas like health, security, education, music, art, and business application. This paper gives an overview of how the AI actually works, its scopes , the different applications of AI, its advantages and disadvantages and many more topics which will give a clear understanding inspite of the boundlessness of AI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Antonio Raffo ◽  
Flavio Paoletti

The fresh-cut industry supplies the food market with healthy fresh fruit and vegetables and, in that way, may contribute to improve the nutritional status of the general population. On the other hand, over the last few years increasing concerns have been raised regarding the environmental impact of the fresh-cut industry, human health risks from exposure to disinfection by-products found in fresh-cut products and chlorine-based disinfection treatments during produce processing. This review provides a comprehensive view of the main interlinked aspects related to food safety and environmental impact of processing of fresh-cut vegetables. Advantages and downsides of the mainstream disinfection strategy, based on the use of chlorine-related disinfecting agents, along with some alternative treatments close to a wide commercial application, are discussed. Limitation in the application of these strategies to processing of organic fresh-cut produce are also highlighted, examining the specific environmental and food safety problems in the organic sector. Areas where lack of available information hinders at present a clear understanding of priorities of research and action are pointed out. Innovative conceptual tools are proposed to address these multiple and interlinking issues and to overcome limitations of currently available technologies. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach is suggested to move toward a more safe and environmentally sustainable production of fresh-cut products.

2022 ◽  
Munusamy Krishnamurthy ◽  
Philip Hope ◽  
P Ramar ◽  
A. A. Boopathi ◽  
Srinivasan Sampath ◽  

Photo-catalysts offer a simple catalytic method with widespread applications like degradation of polluting dyes, hydrogen generation from water, etc., in the presence of a photon source like sunlight. The development of a second-generation photo-catalyst in the form of a nanocomposite is an integral part of research to improve the practical usefulness and efficiency of the process. A systematic study using the active material with controlled functional groups is required to understand the process in detail as well as to develop efficient photocatalytic systems. In this paper, we report the design, synthesis, detailed physicochemical studies, and self-assembly of interesting materials where fullerenes have been functionalized with polycyclic, aromatic, conjugated, butterfly-shaped molecules like Tetrabenzofluorene (TBF) using a well-known click chemistry approach. Detailed analyses using spectroscopic, electrochemical, and microscopic or X-ray diffraction (single crystal) techniques were undertaken for a clear understanding of their photophysical or self-assembly behavior. The functionalized fullerene material was mainly used so that comparative results could be presented where two units (mono adduct) or twelve units (hexakis adduct) of TBF molecules were attached separately. These comparative studies were beneficial for unambiguous interpretation of results and drawing definitive conclusions regarding the energy transfer with cascade-type systems. Finally, those results were useful for the logical understanding of photo-catalytic experiments using those designer fullerene materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-25
Hope Ingabire ◽  
Eugenia Nkechi Irechukwu ◽  

The business models incur high costs, limited uniqueness of feature of products and fewer resources that present the significant negative effect on organization performance. The overall study of this research is to assess generic competitive strategies and organization performance in Rwanda. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of cost leadership strategy on performance of Sulfo Industries Ltd, to examine the effect of differentiation strategy on performance of Sulfo Industries Ltd and to assess the effect of focus strategy on performance of Sulfo Industry Ltd. In research methodology, researcher used a descriptive research in both quantitative and qualitative. The target population was 135 from which a sample of 100 respondents was selected using formula developed by Slovenes. Therefore, researcher used a simple random sampling technique and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version21. Findings and recommendations for this research provided a clear understanding and guidance for better management of Sulfo Industries Ltd. The information collected from respondents showed that 83.2% strongly agreed that Sulfo Industry applies generic competitive strategies where low costs led to desired performance. This was also agreed or confirmed by 13(12.9) of surveyed respondents. Therefore, differentiation strategy shows the uniqueness and premium price of products. This was as strongly agreed by 37(36.6) and 81(60.4) respectively. The information collected also revealed that 64(63.4) of surveyed respondents strongly agreed that the focus strategy aims at increasing the market share in a niche market to achieve performance. This was also agreed by 33(32.7) of surveyed respondents. However, the magnitude of association is indicated by regression of 1.040, which is statistically significant as the p-value is 0.000 as < 0.05. Moreover, it is highly recommended to maintain generic competitive strategies of Porters, which play a great role on organization performance within competitive market. The industry needs to establish code of conducts, undertake training opportunities, reduce unnecessary cost and encourage quality and quantitative products all these will lead to the desired performance. Keywords: Generic Competitive Strategies, Organizational Performance, Manufacturing Industries, Sulfo Industries, Rwanda

Heejin Kim ◽  
B. Sebastian Reiche ◽  
Anne-Wil Harzing

AbstractIntra-company knowledge transfer is a key source of competitive advantage for multinational companies (MNCs) and this knowledge is usually embedded in individuals. Drawing on organizational knowledge creation theory, we explore how inpatriation contributes to knowledge transfer and, in turn, subsidiary performance. Inpatriation involves the international assignment of employees from an MNC’s foreign subsidiary to its headquarters. Despite increasing attention to the role of inpatriation, we lack a clear understanding of whether and how inpatriates provide value to their subsidiaries after returning from headquarters. Through a qualitative case study of Japanese MNCs, we demonstrate the process through which inpatriates’ knowledge transfer contributes to subsidiary capability building and subsidiary evolution over time, and explain why successive inpatriation is thus critical to enhance subsidiary performance. Our theoretical model highlights the value of inpatriates as knowledge agents, reveals the process through which inpatriates transfer knowledge between HQ and subsidiaries, and provides a more nuanced understanding of the micro-foundations of intra-MNC knowledge transfer processes. Based on these findings, we argue that inpatriation is not merely a staffing method that is complementary to expatriation, but a key practice in its own right to support subsidiaries’ growth and performance.

2022 ◽  
pp. 33-47
S. V. Korostelev

The purpose of this article is to eliminate methodological discrepancies in the definition of the problem of “hybrid” use of force and the possibility of using this construct when interfering in the internal affairs of states. In any conflict situation, the behavior of states in moving towards their national goals can be explained through how they do combine and synchronize (as it is often defined at the present time — «hybrid») the use of means of compellence and coercion available to them. In general, conceptually «hybrid war» can be described as “the synchronized use of multiple instruments of national power, specially selected to obtain mutually reinforcing effects on specific vulnerabilities across the entire spectrum of social processes. The substance of the modern security environment has led to an increase in the number of areas of conflict of interests of actors, the complexity and dynamism of conflicts, and the unpredictability of their outcomes. The formation of the practice of attribution of international responsibility, and the development of the international institutions supporting it, took place gradually and, ultimately, led to such a development of the international security environment, which made an appeal to «hybridity» to promote national interests in the process of political competition of social groups or individuals with divergent interests for power inevitable. The problem of terminology is one of the main obstacles to a clear understanding of the operation of the «hybridity» construct in political competition. The active use of the definition «hybrid» by propaganda in combination with the terms «war», «threats», «hostilities in the gray zone», «operations», «tactics», «competition does not turn into a state of war» political discourse, since these terms are almost never linked to the definition of the desired state of international relations by the state leadership. And if we are talking about the outcome of the collision of interests of actors in competition or conflict, then this desired result is «historically» defined by the term «victory». Thus, the definition of the substance of «victory» is a necessary initial point to onset analyzing the possibilities of turning to any of the instruments of national power in a «hybrid» confrontation.

Matthew J. Gerber ◽  
J. P. Hubschman

Abstract Purpose of Review In this review, we provide a brief history of intraocular robotic surgical systems and review the latest technological advancements. The goals are to (a) provide readers with a clear understanding of the important work that has been done in this field; (b) illuminate existing challenges towards full clinical adoption; and (c) speculate on future directions. Recent Findings The majority of work on intraocular robotic surgical systems has been done in university research settings, although two systems have been evaluated in human clinical trials and one system is commercially available for use in human patients. Summary The future of robotic systems in intraocular surgical procedures will depend on the results of ongoing clinical trials and the success of recent start-up companies. Many challenges remain before such systems can become safe and effective treatment options. However, the future of intraocular robotic surgical systems is bright and full of promise.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 772
Lucio Cappelli ◽  
Fabrizio D’Ascenzo ◽  
Roberto Ruggieri ◽  
Irina Gorelova

Access to healthy food and the introduction of sustainable nutrition practices are two important issues today. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new challenges to food security but it has also provided opportunities for local food production. The discussion on local food has been gaining attention in recent years, but there is still a lack of clear understanding of the term ‘local food’ in the literature. The relationship between local food and sustainability issues is still unclear and has various connotations. This discordance leads to further discussions on whether buying local food should be considered a sustainable behavior and whether consumer preference for local food can be perceived as a sustainable practice. A scoping literature review was conducted in order to fill this gap and to shed light on the main tendencies of the scientific literature regarding this topic. The outcomes of the research revealed three dimensions of ‘local food’ definitions in the literature: geographical, geopolitical, and organic; while the problem of a unified local food definition remains open. The studied literature did not show any sound evidence for sustainability attributes in the definition of local food and consumer perception of local food.

2022 ◽  
pp. 251512742110688
Renee D. Watson

The first Heritage’s Dairy Store opened in Westville New Jersey on October 10, 1957. The chain of convenient stores is known for their quality lunchmeats, fresh coffee, and their own brand of milk and ice cream. The company wholesales candy, tobacco, and groceries from its Heritage’s Wholesale Company, which supplies more than 75% of products sold in its 33+ locations. Additionally, Heritage’s now offers customizable food options throughout the day. As the business transitions to the next generation, the leadership has noticed changes within their markets, new trends within the industry, and several marketing related challenges. Following marketing research, Heritage’s found the majority of their consumers were over the age of 50. Research also showed many respondents under 25 were unaware of the company. Additionally, many within the 20–39 age bracket who had heard of the company still did not have a clear understanding of the product offerings or overall brand. Heritage’s is faced with maintaining their current consumer base while simultaneously attracting the younger demographic. Additionally, major changes in technology, store design, marketing, and branding would come at a significant cost. Lastly, the management of Heritage’s seeks to honor their company history while looking toward the future.

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