bipolar membranes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 641 ◽  
pp. 119899
Arturo Ortega ◽  
Luis F. Arenas ◽  
Joep J.H. Pijpers ◽  
Diana L. Vicencio ◽  
Juan C. Martínez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Ireneusz Miesiac ◽  
Beata Rukowicz

AbstractThe traditional view of the conductivity of electrolytes is based on the mobility of ions in an electric field. A new concept of water conductivity introduces an electron–hole mechanism known from semiconductor theory. The electrolyte ions in the hydrogen bond network of water imitate the structure of a doped silicon lattice. The source of the current carriers is the electrode reaction generating H+ and OH− ions. The continuity of current flow is provided through the electron–hole mechanism, and the movement of electrolyte ions is only a side process. Bipolar membrane in the semiconductor approach is an electrochemical diode forward biased. Generation of large amounts of H+ and OH− has to be considered as a result of current flow and does not require any increase in the water dissociation rate. Bipolar membranes are essential in electrodialysis stacks for the recovery of acids and bases by salt splitting. Graphic Abstract

Marijn A. Blommaert ◽  
Siddhartha Subramanian ◽  
Kailun Yang ◽  
Wilson A. Smith ◽  
David A. Vermaas

2021 ◽  
Vol 640 ◽  
pp. 119748 ◽  
Emad Al-Dhubhani ◽  
Ragne Pärnamäe ◽  
Jan W. Post ◽  
Michel Saakes ◽  
Michele Tedesco

Olga A. Kozaderova ◽  
Ksenia B. Kim ◽  
Petr E. Belousov ◽  
Anna V. Timkova ◽  
Sabukhi I. Niftaliev

The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the electrodialysis of a sodium sulphate solution with experimental bipolar membranes based on the MA-41 anion exchange membrane and a liquid sulphonated cation-exchanger modified with bentonite clays. The conversion of sodium sulphate was conducted by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes obtained by applying a liquid sulphonated cation-exchanger containing particles of bentonite clay to the MA-41 anion-exchange membrane.To increase the performance of membranes in terms of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, we carried out organomodifications of bentonite with alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and stearic acid at various concentrations. The bipolar membrane with the addition of bentonite modified with alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (2 wt%) showed a higher performance in terms of H+-ions. The bipolar membrane with bentonite modified with stearic acid (3 wt%) added to its cation-exchangelayer is the most effective in terms of obtaining a flux of OH--ions. It was shown that a combination ofalkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (2 wt%) and stearic acid (3 wt%) used to modify bentonite can increase the performance of the bipolar membrane during the conversion of sodium sulphate, both in terms of the acid and alkali.

Amelia Hohenadel ◽  
Apurva Shantilal Gangrade ◽  
Steven Holdcroft

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (17) ◽  
pp. 8100
Marta Herrero-Gonzalez ◽  
Raquel Ibañez

Electro-membrane technologies are versatile processes that could contribute towards more sustainable seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination in both freshwater production and brine management, facilitating the recovery of materials and energy and driving the introduction of the circular economy paradigm in the desalination industry. Besides the potential possibilities, the implementation of electro-membrane technologies remains a challenge. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate different alternatives for harvesting renewable energy and the recovery of chemicals on an SWRO facility by means of electro-membrane technology. Acid and base self-supply by means of electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is considered, together with salinity gradient energy harvesting by means of reverse electrodialysis and pH gradient energy by means of reverse electrodialysis with bipolar membranes. The potential benefits of the proposed alternatives rely on environmental impact reduction is three-fold: (a) water bodies protection, as direct brine discharge is avoided, (b) improvements in the climate change indicator, as the recovery of renewable energy reduces the indirect emissions related to energy production, and (c) reduction of raw material consumption, as the main chemicals used in the facility are produced in-situ. Moreover, further development towards an increase in their technology readiness level (TRL) and cost reduction are the main challenges to face.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 575
Alonso González ◽  
Mario Grágeda ◽  
Adrián Quispe ◽  
Svetlana Ushak ◽  
Philippe Sistat ◽  

The objective of this work was to evaluate obtaining LiOH directly from brines with high LiCl concentrations using bipolar membrane electrodialysis by the analysis of Li+ ion transport phenomena. For this purpose, Neosepta BP and Fumasep FBM bipolar membranes were characterized by linear sweep voltammetry, and the Li+ transport number in cation-exchange membranes was determined. In addition, a laboratory-scale reactor was designed, constructed, and tested to develop experimental LiOH production tests. The selected LiCl concentration range, based on productive process concentrations for Salar de Atacama (Chile), was between 14 and 34 wt%. Concentration and current density effects on LiOH production, current efficiency, and specific electricity consumption were evaluated. The highest current efficiency obtained was 0.77 at initial concentrations of LiOH 0.5 wt% and LiCl 14 wt%. On the other hand, a concentrated LiOH solution (between 3.34 wt% and 4.35 wt%, with a solution purity between 96.0% and 95.4%, respectively) was obtained. The results of this work show the feasibility of LiOH production from concentrated brines by means of bipolar membrane electrodialysis, bringing the implementation of this technology closer to LiOH production on a larger scale. Moreover, being an electrochemical process, this could be driven by Solar PV, taking advantage of the high solar radiation conditions in the Atacama Desert in Chile.

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