Open Channel Flows
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2022 ◽  
Vol 181 ◽  
pp. 1305-1316
Jinjin Gao ◽  
Han Liu ◽  
Jiyong Lee ◽  
Yuan Zheng ◽  
Michele Guala ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 927 ◽  
Carlo Camporeale ◽  
Fabio Cannamela ◽  
Claudio Canuto ◽  
Costantino Manes

This paper presents some results coming from a linear stability analysis of turbulent depth-averaged open-channel flows (OCFs) with secondary currents. The aim was to identify plausible mechanisms underpinning the formation of large-scale turbulence structures, which are commonly referred to as large-scale motions (LSMs) and very-large-scale motions (VLSMs). Results indicate that the investigated flows are subjected to a sinuous instability whose longitudinal wavelength compares very well with that pertaining to LSMs. In contrast, no unstable modes at wavelengths comparable to those associated with VLSMs could be found. This suggests that VLSMs in OCFs are triggered by nonlinear mechanisms to which the present analysis is obviously blind. We demonstrate that the existence of the sinuous instability requires two necessary conditions: (i) the circulation of the secondary currents $\omega$ must be greater than a critical value $\omega _c$ ; (ii) the presence of a dynamically responding free surface (i.e. when the free surface is modelled as a frictionless flat surface, no instabilities are detected). The present paper draws some ideas from the work by Cossu, Hwang and co-workers on other wall flows (i.e. turbulent boundary layers, pipe, channel and Couette flows) and somewhat supports their idea that LSMs and VLSMs might be governed by an outer-layer cycle also in OCFs. However, the presence of steady secondary flows makes the procedure adopted herein much simpler than that used by these authors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 925 ◽  
Amir Atoufi ◽  
K. Andrea Scott ◽  
Michael L. Waite

In this paper, the kinetic energy cascade in stably stratified open-channel flows is investigated. A mathematical framework to incorporate vertical scales into the conventional kinetic energy spectrum and its budget is introduced. This framework defines kinetic energy density in horizontal spectral and vertical scale space. The energy cascade is studied by analysing the evolution of kinetic energy density. It is shown that energetic streamwise scales ($\lambda _x$) become larger with increasing vertical scale. For the strongest stratification, for which the turbulence becomes intermittent, the energetic streamwise scales are suppressed, and energy density resides in $\lambda _x$ of the size of the domain. It is shown that, in an unstratified case, vertical scales of the size comparable to the height of the logarithmic layer connect viscous regions to the outer layer. By contrast, in stratified cases, such a connection is not observed. Moreover, it is shown that nonlinear transfer for streamwise scales is dominated by in-plane triad interactions and inter-plane transfer is more active in transferring energy density among small vertical scales of the size comparable to the height of viscous sublayer. The vertical scales of size comparable to the height of the viscous sublayer and buffer layer are the most active scales in the viscous term and the production term in the energy density budget, respectively.

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