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Cognition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 221 ◽  
pp. 104991
Arianna Felisatti ◽  
Mariagrazia Ranzini ◽  
Elvio Blini ◽  
Matteo Lisi ◽  
Marco Zorzi

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e0201-e0201
Alberto Assirelli ◽  

Aim of study: To test new approaches to perform mechanical weeding inside the row in horticulture and tree fruit fields. The idea is to weed the row by skipping the crop by means of a rotating system instead of a traditional crosswise one. Area of study: North of Italy. Material and methods: Numerical models have been developed to simulate mechanical weeding over time by generating numerical maps to quantify the different kind of worked areas. Main results: Considering the efficiency of weed control on the row, the rotating plant-skipping system with vertical axis (RPSS-VA model) with two working tools gives the best performance index (1.1.RWA% = 95.9%). A similar performance can be obtained by the crosswise displacement plant-skipping system (CDSS model, 1.1.RWA% = 95.9 %), but with very high crosswise translation velocity (with va/vr ratio = 1/5, 1.1.RWA% = 94.5%). With regard to the outwards worked area the RPSS-VA models give the best performances (2.2.%OWAR index from 127.2% up to 282.3%). To reduce the worked area outside the row, the FBTS models give lower index (2.1.OWAR%), while the RPSS-HA works only on the row, but with the lower 1.1.RWA% index among all tested models (55.8%). Research highlights: Rotating systems resulted more efficient than traditional ones, and provide considerations on the use of electric drive power instead of hydraulic one. This study highlights also the need of new approaches in designing lighter working tools. Lastly, the proposed classification of the worked areas could be used as reference standard.

2022 ◽  
Vol 49 ◽  
pp. 101789
Zhenzhou Zhao ◽  
Dingding Wang ◽  
Tongguang Wang ◽  
Wenzhong Shen ◽  
Huiwen Liu ◽  

Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 122782
Pedro Francisco Silva Trentin ◽  
Pedro Henrique Barsanaor de Barros Martinez ◽  
Gabriel Bertacco dos Santos ◽  
Elóy Esteves Gasparin ◽  
Leandro Oliveira Salviano

2022 ◽  
Kristoffer Marslev

Based on a Marxist reworking of the global value chains (GVC) framework, supplemented by insights from structuralist development economics and dependency theory, the thesis investigates what role evolving class relations play in processes of social and economic upgrading in global garment value chains. Situating workers’ agency at the intersection of a horizontal axis (local capital-labor-state relations) and a vertical axis (governance and distributional dynamics of the GVC), the thesis starts out by examining the key features of the 21st century garment GVC and their implications for producer countries. It is shown how a series of interrelated processes, including the transition to neoliberalism in the North, and the phase-out of quotas in the South, combined to produce a “supplier squeeze” in the garment GVC, with a simultaneous depression of export prices and an escalation of non-price requirements. Drawing on the work of the dependentista Marini, it is argued that these distributional dynamics amount to a form of unequal exchange that incentivizes manufacturers to super-exploit workers, pushing their wages below reproduction costs and/or working them beyond exhaustion.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0309524X2110671
Shoutu Li ◽  
Qing Wang ◽  
Congxin Yang

One of the important challenges for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is to fully understand its dynamic characteristics in different operating conditions. Meanwhile, it is necessary to seek a fast and accurate method to evaluate the dynamic characteristic of VAWT. In this study, we improve the LB model by considering the operating principle of VAWT to study the dynamic characteristics of the dedicated and commonly used VAWT airfoils in different operating conditions. The results show that the improved LB model is suitable for simulating the dynamic characteristic of VAWT with a thick airfoil. Although the asymmetric airfoil shows the higher lift coefficient, their dynamic characteristic appears huge fluctuation as the increases of tip speed ratio. Moreover, at a low tip speed ratio, the advantages of the asymmetric airfoil are not obvious. While the dynamic characteristic of the symmetric airfoil is relatively stable with the variation of tip speed ratio.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 411
Sadayuki Ito ◽  
Hiroaki Nakashima ◽  
Akiyuki Matsumoto ◽  
Kei Ando ◽  
Masaaki Machino ◽  

Introduction: The T1 slope is important for cervical surgical planning, and it may be invisible on radiographic images. The prevalence of T1 invisible cases and the differences in demographic and radiographic characteristics between patients whose T1 slopes are visible or invisible remains unexplored. Methods: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the differences in these characteristics between outpatients whose T1 slopes were visible or invisible on radiographic images. Patients (n = 60) who underwent cervical radiography, whose T1 slope was confirmed clearly, were divided into the visible (V) group and invisible (I) group. The following radiographic parameters were measured: (1) C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), (2) C2-7 angle in neutral, flexion, and extension positions. Results: Based on the T1 slope visibility, 46.7% of patients were included in group I. The I group had significantly larger C2-7 SVA than the V group for males (p < 0.05). The C2-7 SVA tended to be larger in the I group, without significant difference for females (p = 0.362). Discussion: The mean C2-7 angle in neutral and flexion positions was not significantly different between the V and I groups for either sex. The mean C2-7 angle in the extension position was greater in the V group. The T1 slope was invisible in males with high C2-7 SVA.

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