For a few decades, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has been the most studied photocatalyst due to its significant optical property. In the paper, TiO2 pigment powder (Anatase form) was selected as a precursor to prepare a variety of Black-TiO2 samples, and the typical material was then evaluated for its photocatalytic activity in organic pollutant treatment. Some properties of Black-TiO2 were determined via common methods such as sensory analysis, X-Ray diffraction, and bandgap measurement obtained from UV-Vis spectroscopy. As a result, the material was successfully converted to more than 40% organic pollutant as Methyl Orange (C14H14N3NaO3S) for an hour, as two times higher than that of the amount converted by pristine TiO2. In addition, Black-TiO2 performed much better photocatalytic activity in an acidic medium in comparison with a neutral one, and the material also remained its activity as more than 90% after three time-continuous recycling operations.
The release of phenolic-contaminated treated palm oil mill effluent (TPOME) poses a severe threat to human and environmental health. In this work, manganese-modified black TiO2 (Mn-B-TiO2) was produced for the photodegradation of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds from TPOME. A modified glycerol-assisted technique was used to synthesize visible-light-sensitive black TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), which were then calcined at 300 °C for 60 min for conversion to anatase crystalline phase. The black TiO2 was further modified with manganese by utilizing a wet impregnation technique. Visible light absorption, charge carrier separation, and electron–hole pair recombination suppression were all improved when the band structure of TiO2 was tuned by producing Ti3+ defect states. As a result of the enhanced optical and electrical characteristics of black TiO2 NPs, phenolic compounds were removed from TPOME at a rate of 48.17%, which is 2.6 times higher than P25 (18%). When Mn was added to black TiO2 NPs, the Ti ion in the TiO2 lattice was replaced by Mn, causing a large redshift of the optical absorption edges and enhanced photodegradation of phenolic compounds from TPOME. The photodegradation efficiency of phenolic compounds by Mn-B-TiO2 improved to 60.12% from 48.17% at 0.3 wt% Mn doping concentration. The removal efficiency of phenolic compounds from TPOME diminished when Mn doping exceeded the optimum threshold (0.3 wt%). According to the findings, Mn-modified black TiO2 NPs are the most effective, as they combine the advantages of both black TiO2 and Mn doping.