x ray diffraction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 236 ◽  
pp. 111510
Author(s):  
Kejun Chen ◽  
Alexandra Bothwell ◽  
Harvey Guthrey ◽  
Matthew B. Hartenstein ◽  
Jana-Isabelle Polzin ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 471-479
Author(s):  
Aqsa Khan ◽  
Ghazna Hassan Khan ◽  
Eraj Humayun Mirza ◽  
Alidad Chandio ◽  
Maliha Mohsin ◽  
...  

Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a multidisciplinary field in recent times with an aim to expedite the process of regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. This study is an attempt to fabricate and characterize Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and Chitosan incorporated Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based bone cement. In total two experimental PMMA based bone cements were fabricated that were differentiated by presence and absence of Chitosan. In both groups (10 and 30 wt.%) TCP were incorporated into Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer. PMMA was used as a control. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were assessed. Morphological changes of PMMA after the introduction of TCP and Chitosan were observed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Major peak shifts in Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated the strong bonding of PMMA with incorporated materials. PMMA incorporated with 10% TCP showed the maximum wettability in absence of Chitosan. Hardness of the tested specimens decreased with increasing content of TCP which in turns enhanced ductility. It was also observed that neither of the samples showed significant degradation. The incorporation of additives enhance the physical and chemical properties of PMMA as bone cement.


2022 ◽  
Vol 321 ◽  
pp. 126326
Author(s):  
Gladis Aparecida Galindo Reisemberger de Souza ◽  
Ramón Sigifredo Cortés Paredes ◽  
Frieda Saicla Barros ◽  
Gustavo Bavaresco Sucharski ◽  
Sebastião Ribeiro Junior ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Adam Lindkvist ◽  
Yubin Zhang

Laboratory diffraction contrast tomography (LabDCT) is a recently developed technique to map crystallographic orientations of polycrystalline samples in three dimensions non-destructively using a laboratory X-ray source. In this work, a new theoretical procedure, named LabXRS, expanding LabDCT to include mapping of the deviatoric strain tensors on the grain scale, is proposed and validated using simulated data. For the validation, the geometries investigated include a typical near-field LabDCT setup utilizing Laue focusing with equal source-to-sample and sample-to-detector distances of 14 mm, a magnified setup where the sample-to-detector distance is increased to 200 mm, a far-field Laue focusing setup where the source-to-sample distance is also increased to 200 mm, and a near-field setup with a source-to-sample distance of 200 mm. The strain resolution is found to be in the range of 1–5 × 10−4, depending on the geometry of the experiment. The effects of other experimental parameters, including pixel binning, number of projections and imaging noise, as well as microstructural parameters, including grain position, grain size and grain orientation, on the strain resolution are examined. The dependencies of these parameters, as well as the implications for practical experiments, are discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 65 ◽  
pp. 210-218
Author(s):  
Caroline Piffet ◽  
Bénédicte Vertruyen ◽  
Frédéric Hatert ◽  
Rudi Cloots ◽  
Frédéric Boschini ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jaimie Greasley ◽  
Shivan Goolcharan ◽  
Roger Andrews

In the twin-island state of Trinidad and Tobago, urinary stone analysis is not routinely performed. This study investigates, via powder X-ray diffraction, 52 urinary tract calculi collected from hospitals in Trinidad. Of these, 46 stones were analysed with Rietveld refinement for quantitative analysis and materials characterization. Refined unit-cell, microstructural and weight fraction parameters were obtained, with the last being used for stone classification. The results revealed seven distinct mineralogical phases of varying frequency: calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, 58%), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, 23%), carbonated apatite (APA, 48%), brushite (BRU, 6%), struvite (STR, 42%), uric acid (UA, 23%) and ammonium acid urate (AAU, 19%). The average refined crystallite sizes were 1352 ± 90 Å (COM), 1921 ± 285 Å (COD), 83 ± 5 Å (APA), 1172 ± 9 Å (BRU), 1843 ± 138 Å (STR), 981 ± 87 Å (UA) and 292 ± 83 Å (AAU). Subsequently, 36.5% of stones were categorized as phosphates, 34.6% as oxalates, 13.5% as uric acid/urates and 15.4% as mixed compositions. The study findings highlight the importance of stone analysis as a necessary step towards disease management of local patients, and endorse the application of Rietveld refinement as a natural extension to diffraction-based kidney stone investigations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 203-209
Author(s):  
Kumara Dhas M ◽  
Vijayaraj K

The Cupric oxide (CuO) nanostructures and Fe doped CuO nanomaterials are synthesized by microwave irradiation method. The effect of Fe doping on the crystal structure, band gap and optical properties of synthesized samples were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectrometer, photoluminescence spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. X-ray diffraction study confirms the size of the particle in nanometer. The optical band gap calculated from UV–Vis absorption spectrum, reveals the change in band gap energy due to the presence of dopants. The photoluminescence spectrum suggests that Fe doped CuO nanoparticles may be used in optoelectronic devices. The functional group analysis carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the substitution of Fe in the samples.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Riddhi Golwankar ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  
Victor Day ◽  
James Blakemore

Incorporation of redox-inactive metals into redox-active complexes and catalysts attracts attention for engendering new reactivity modes, but this strategy has not been extensively investigated beyond the first-row of the transition metals. Here, the isolation and characterization of the first series of heterobimetallic complexes of palladium with mono-, di-, and tri-valent redox-inactive metal ions are reported. A Reinhoudt-type heteroditopic ligand with a salen-derived [N2,O2] binding site for Pd and a crown-ether-derived [O6] site has been used to prepare isolable adducts of the Lewis acidic redox-inactive metal ions (Mn+). Comprehensive data from single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal distinctive trends in the structural properties of the heterobimetallic species, including an uncommon dependence of the Pd•••M distance on Lewis acidity. The reorganization energy associated with reduction of the heterobimetallic species is strongly modulated by Lewis acidity, with the slowest heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics associated with the strongest incorporated Lewis acids. This hitherto unexplored reorganization energy penalty for electron transfer contrasts with prior thermodynamic studies, revealing that kinetic parameters should be considered in studies of reactivity involving heterobimetallic species.


Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 342
Author(s):  
Ekkachai Martwong ◽  
Santi Chuetor ◽  
Jatupol Junthip

Cationic organic pollutants (dyes and pesticides) are mainly hydrosoluble and easily contaminate water and create a serious problem for biotic and abiotic species. The elimination of these dangerous contaminants from water was accomplished by adsorption using cyclodextrin nanosponges. These nanosponges were elaborated by the cross-linking between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and β-cyclodextrin in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol). Their physicochemical characteristics were characterized by gravimetry, acid-base titration, TGA, 13C NMR, ATR-FTIR, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and Stereomicroscopy. The BP5 nanosponges displayed 68.4% yield, 3.31 mmol/g COOH groups, 0.16 mmol/g β-CD content, 54.2% swelling, 97.0% PQ removal, 96.7% SO removal, and 98.3% MG removal for 25 mg/L of initial concentration. The pseudo-second-order model was suitable for kinetics using 180 min of contact time. Langmuir isotherm was suitable for isotherm with the maximum adsorption of 120.5, 92.6, and 64.9 mg/g for paraquat (PQ), safranin (SO), and malachite green (MG) adsorption, respectively. Finally, the reusability performance after five regeneration times reached 94.1%, 91.6%, and 94.6% for PQ, SO, and MG adsorption, respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 972
Author(s):  
Chen Jin ◽  
Zhuangwei Shi ◽  
Chuanze Kang ◽  
Ken Lin ◽  
Han Zhang

X-ray diffraction technique is one of the most common methods of ascertaining protein structures, yet only 2–10% of proteins can produce diffraction-quality crystals. Several computational methods have been proposed so far to predict protein crystallization. Nevertheless, the current state-of-the-art computational methods are limited by the scarcity of experimental data. Thus, the prediction accuracy of existing models hasn’t reached the ideal level. To address the problems above, we propose a novel transfer-learning-based framework for protein crystallization prediction, named TLCrys. The framework proceeds in two steps: pre-training and fine-tuning. The pre-training step adopts attention mechanism to extract both global and local information of the protein sequences. The representation learned from the pre-training step is regarded as knowledge to be transferred and fine-tuned to enhance the performance of crystalization prediction. During pre-training, TLCrys adopts a multi-task learning method, which not only improves the learning ability of protein encoding, but also enhances the robustness and generalization of protein representation. The multi-head self-attention layer guarantees that different levels of the protein representation can be extracted by the fine-tuned step. During transfer learning, the fine-tuning strategy used by TLCrys improves the task-specialized learning ability of the network. Our method outperforms all previous predictors significantly in five crystallization stages of prediction. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can be well generalized to other protein sequence classification tasks.


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