Total Phenolic
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2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 32-37

The pomelo peel occupies 50% of the fruit mass in pomelo juice processing. It contains large amounts of phenolic compounds, which may provide benefits to human health. These components should be isolated. In this study, the effects of ethanol concentrations, material-to-solvent ratios (g/mL), temperatures and sonication time on total phenolic content (TPC), naringin content and antioxidant capacity (using DPPH assay) of extract solution was evaluated. The results showed that all experimental factors significantly influenced the extraction of total polyphenol content, naringin content, and antioxidant capacity of the extract. The extraction condition was ethanol 80%, material-to-solvent ratio of 1:25 (w/v) at 60oC, and sonication time of 7.5 min, gave the extract had total phenolic content of 9.05 ± 0.08 mg GAE/g DM, naringin content of 4.65 ± 0.08 mg NE/ g DM, and antioxidant capacity of 4.76 ± 0.03 mg AAE/g DM. The ultrasound treatment was a useful method for improving the extraction of phenolic acid compounds from pomelo peel.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (No. 5) ◽  
pp. 402-409
Saira Tanweer ◽  
Muhammad Farhan Jahangir Chughtai ◽  
Saadia Zainab ◽  
Tariq Mehmood ◽  
Adnan Khaliq ◽  

The present investigation was an attempt to compare the phytoceutic potential of ginger rhizome and ginger leaves of the Suravi variety. For this purpose, both rhizome and leaves were dried and used for the preparation of patties. After that, patties were assessed for colour tonality, texture, total phenolic content and hedonic response such as colour, taste, flavour, texture and overall acceptability. The results depicted that L* and b* values changed significantly during the storage interval; however, b* value was also affected by treatments whilst L* and a* values did not impart any momentous effect. For texture, the highest value was observed for patties with ginger rhizome powder (0.067 ± 0.0032 N) followed by patties with ginger leaf powder (0.060 ± 0.0029 N) and then control patties (0.057 ± 0.0026 N). For total phenolic content (TPC), maximum phenolic contents were observed as 84.80 ± 3.31 mg GAE 100 g<sup>–1</sup> in treatment T<sub>2</sub> followed by 75.68 ± 2.95 mg GAE 100 g<sup>–1</sup> in T<sub>1</sub> and 61.70 ± 2.41 mg GAE 100 g<sup>–1</sup> in T<sub>0</sub>. For hedonic response, all the parameters changed significantly during the storage interval; however, flavour, taste and overall acceptability changed momentously with treatments. The findings of the current investigation demonstrated that ginger leaves have a higher antioxidant potential as compared to the ginger rhizome and control patties, and they should be incorporated into food products.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Rudabeh Rufchaei ◽  
Mahdi Abbas-Mohammadi ◽  
Alireza Mirzajani ◽  
Shiva Nedaei

Background: Water hyacinth (WH) is an aquatic weed and one of the most productive plants on earth, causing serious environmental problems. Herein, some nutritional and phytochemical constituents of WH were investigated. Methods: Chemical analysis of Eichhornia Crassipes was carried out to determine total ash, humidity, crude protein, fat, fiber, and carbohydrate contents. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant were determined using the Folin Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, and HPLC was performed to quantify eight phenolic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were also evaluated. Results: The dry matter, total ash, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and ether extract contents of WH constituted 9.4, 12.9, 24, 11.5, 49.9, and 1.7%, respectively. The total phenolic contents of the hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts were 491.2 ± 31.9 and 258.3 ± 10.8 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dried extract, respectively. The total flavonoid content of the hydro-methanolic extract (76.8 ± 7.8) was higher than that of the aqueous extract (46.1 ± 6). Ferulic acid was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in both extracts. The antioxidant activities of the hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 221.52 and 97.07 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. The aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study indicated the applicability of WH as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2154
Muhammed Kupe ◽  
Neva Karatas ◽  
Mehmet Settar Unal ◽  
Sezai Ercisli ◽  
Mojmir Baron ◽  

The Erzincan plain is one of the richest regions in Turkey in terms of plant biodiversity. In this region, the famous grape cultivar ‘Karaerik’ has always dominated grape production due to its berry characteristics. The cultivar shows great morphological variation at clonal level. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of peel, pulp and seed extracts of nine ‘Karaerik’ clones sampled from same location were investigated. The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of peel, pulp and seed extracts of nine clones. To determine antioxidant activity, three well known assays such as DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) were used. In addition, the correlation between total phenol content and DPPH, FRAP and TEAC was determined. Results showed that among the tissues, seed samples in berries of all clones had the highest total phenol content and antioxidant activity determined by three assays. Seed samples were followed by peel and pulp for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Among the nine ‘Karaerik’ clones, Clone 8 had the highest total phenolic content (149 mg GAE/100 g FW) while Clone 3 had the lowest (111 mg GAE/100 g FW). Peel, pulp and seed samples of nine ‘Karaerik’ clones showed strong antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. In particular, grape seeds were found rich for better in phenolic compounds including gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Clones such as 7, 8 and 9 higher antioxidant activity may present great potential for grape breeders and the food industry as well as health-conscious consumers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 576-599
Andromachi Tzani ◽  
Styliani Kalafateli ◽  
Grigorios Tatsis ◽  
Maria Bairaktari ◽  
Ioanna Kostopoulou ◽  

The extraction of valuable phytochemicals from natural sources is an important and constantly evolving research area. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) contains high amounts of bioactive phytochemicals, which are desirable due to their significant properties. In this work, the ability of different natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDESs) to serve as green solvents for the preparation of high added value extracts from ginger is explored, in combination with ultrasound assisted extraction. The method was optimized by applying a response surface methodology using the NaDES Bet/La/W (1:2:2.5). Three independent variables, namely the extraction time, ultrasound power and NaDES-to-dry-ginger ratio, were investigated by employing a 17-run three-level Box–Behnken Design (BBD) in order to study the correlation between the extraction conditions and the quality of the obtained extracts. The optimum conditions (in order to achieve simultaneously maximum total phenolic content and antioxidant activity), were found to be 23.8 min extraction time, 60 Watt and NaDES/ginger 25:1 w/w. In the optimum conditions the DPPH radical scavenging ability of the extracts was found to reach IC50 = 18.16 mg/mL after 120 min, whereas the TPC was 20.10 ± 0.26 mg GAE/g of dry ginger. The green methodology was also compared with the extraction using conventional solvents. All the obtained extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and their total phenolic content, while the extract derived by the optimum extraction conditions was further investigated for its ability to bind to calf thymus DNA (ctDNA).

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Barthlomew Yonas Chataika ◽  
Levi Shadeya-Mudogo Akundabweni ◽  
Aristide Carlos Houdegbe ◽  
Enoch G. Achigan-Dako ◽  
Julia Sibiya ◽  

Increased public awareness of healthy foods and healthy living, coupled with escalating medicinal costs and recent advances in research and technology, has sparked a paradigm shift to nutraceuticals, which guarantee human health and disease prevention. Spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) contains dietary phytochemicals with high nutritional and medicinal properties that can contribute to healthy living. A study was conducted to identify spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq.) accessions with superior levels of dietary phytochemicals and anti-oxidative activity for use in nutraceutical breeding. Thirty-three accessions of spider plant, representing a wide genetic diversity based on geographic areas of origin (Asia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and West Africa), were used. Total phenolic acids, tannins, and anthocyanins were extracted and quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric, spectrophotometric, and pH differential methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined using phosphomolybdenum method. Results showed significant variation in levels of total phenolic compounds, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (P &lt; 0.05) amongst the spider plant accessions and regions of origin; ODS-15-037 (464 mg TAE/g DW), ODS-15-053 (270 mg GAE/g DW), and BC-02A (127 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g DW) had the highest levels of total tannins, phenolic compounds, and anthocyanins, respectively. Antioxidant activity was high in ODS-15-053 (492.2 mg AAE/100 g DW), NAM 2232 (445.3 mg AAE/100 g DW), and NAM-6 (432.5 mg AAE/100 g DW). On average, West African accessions had significantly high tannin concentrations (239 mg TAE/g DW), while Southern Africa accessions contained significantly high anthocyanin content (58.9 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g DW). The superior accessions are potential candidates for use in nutraceutical breeding, while the regions of origin could be used as gene pools for specific phytochemicals for improving dietary supplements of nutraceuticals. The strong antioxidant activity exhibited by spider plant accessions suggests the presence of compounds responsible for scavenging free oxygen or nitrogen radicals. Further studies are recommended to identify the chromosomal regions that contain genes controlling the dietary nutraceuticals in the genetic materials and to determine their association with foliage yield and other phenotypes, which can be utilized in spider plant improvement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 9241
Anna Mikulajová ◽  
Zuzana Matejčeková ◽  
Silvia Mošovská ◽  
Zlatica Kohajdová ◽  
Ľubomír Valík ◽  

This study determined the effect of fermentation by Fresco DVS 1010 starter culture with added probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and potentially probiotic isolate Lactobacillus plantarum HM1, at fermentation times (0, 8 h) and cold storage period (24 h, 4th day, 7th day, 14th day), on microbial parameters, pH changes, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds profile, and antioxidant activity of buckwheat water- and milk-based mashes, flavored with cranberries and unflavored. The tested starter Fresco culture effectively fermented the buckwheat products and the viable cell counts of potentially probiotic bacteria were sufficient to demonstrate the health-promoting properties of final products. Lactic acid bacteria had a positive impact on total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of buckwheat mashes, whereby final values (14 days) were higher by about 16.9–130.8%, 13.4–37.7%, and 14.5–145.9%, respectively, in comparison to initial values (0 h). Seven phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic) and two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) in buckwheat mashes were measured during the experimental period. The content of quercetin, gallic, and protocatechuic acids increased and, conversely, p-coumaric acid decreased, in all products. Prepared buckwheat fermented products have the potential to meet the criteria for potentially functional foods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (5) ◽  
pp. 1347-1354
M.K. Berwal ◽  
S.M. Haldhar ◽  
C. Ram ◽  
P.L. Saroj ◽  

Aim: The aim of the study was Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, total flavonoides content and antioxidant potential of flower buds, foliages, bark and root of a perennial herb, Calligonum polygonoides (Phog) of Thar Desert. Methodology: The methanolic extracts of different plant parts of C. polygonoides were subjected to LC-MS/MS (Waters Acquity UPLC-PDA, TQD) analysis for phenolic identification and spectrophotometric assay of total phenolic and flavonoids content and total antioxidant activity was estimated. Results: A total of 15 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified, among which gallic acid content was abundant, followed by catechin. Besides these, the other major phenolic compounds detected in different plant parts were vanillic, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, coumeric acid, catechol, vanillic acid, epicatechin and syringic acid. Extremely higher values were recorded for total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. The values for phenol, flavonoids and total antioxidant activity in bark extracts were higher than that of clove extract. Interpretation: The identified phenolic compounds possess high antioxidant potential. These results provide scientific evidence for use of C. polygonoides as safe natural antioxidant compounds in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1939
Ramaraj Sathasivam ◽  
Min Cheol Kim ◽  
Hyeon Ji Yeo ◽  
Bao Van Nguyen ◽  
Soo In Sohn ◽  

Kohlrabi is considered an important dietary vegetable worldwide. In this study, we investigated the growth and accumulation of phenolic compounds (PCs) and glucosinolates in sprouts of pale green and purple kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) in response to light and dark conditions. Pale green kohlrabi presented high fresh weight and root length irrespective of light treatment, whereas under dark conditions, it presented higher fresh weight and shoot length than purple kohlrabi. In contrast, the root length of both kohlrabies increased markedly under light conditions compared to that under dark conditions. Thirteen PCs and eight glucosinolates were detected and quantified in 10-day-old pale green and purple kohlrabies. In both kohlrabies, the individual and total phenolic levels were much higher under the light treatment than under the dark treatment. Under light and dark conditions, the total phenolic content was 6362.13 and 5475.04 µg/g dry weight in the pale green kohlrabi, respectively, whereas in the purple kohlrabi, it was 10,115.76 and 9361.74 µg/g dry weight, respectively. Dark conditions favored higher accumulation of glucosinolates than light conditions. Progoitrin, neoglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were the predominant glucosinolates in both kohlrabies and were present in much higher amounts in the pale green kohlrabi. In pale green kohlrabi under dark conditions, the total glucosinolates content was 4.75 and 2.62 times higher than that of the purple kohlrabi under light and dark conditions, respectively. Among individual glucosinolates, in the pale green kohlrabi under the dark condition, progoitrin was found to have the highest content, which was 90.28 and 54.51 times higher than that in the purple kohlrabi under light and dark conditions, respectively. These results show that the phenolic and glucosinolates levels varied widely, and these variations between the two types of kohlrabi under both light and dark conditions were significant. Our findings suggest that light and dark conditions enhance the accumulation of PCs and glucosinolates, respectively, during the development of kohlrabi seedlings.

Buket Aydeniz-Guneser

The aims of this study were to evaluate the total phenolic and pigment contents of five edible plants collected from Eastern Black Sea region and to test the storage stability of extra virgin olive oils aromatized with traditionally consumed plants. Aromatized extra virgin olive oils were prepared by addition of dry forms of local plants such as mendek (Aegopodium podagraria L.), çalıçilek (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), galdirik (Trachystemon orientalis L.), sakarca (Ornithogalum umbellatum L.) and hırnık (Diospyros lotus L.). Changes in the quality status of extra virgin olive oil were monitored with free fatty acid, peroxide value, total phenol content, pheophtyin a, lutein and beta carotene analyses during 5-month storage period at 24°C. Furthermore, hue and chrome values, total phenolic, chlorophyll and carotene contents were also analysed to determine the characteristic properties of plant samples. The addition of mendek and çalıçilek have remarkable effects on the transfer of phenolic compounds and pigments from plants to oil during all storage. It was determined that the addition of plant materials can improve the oil stability and cause to a lower free fatty acid and peroxide values in aromatized extra virgin olive oils. Obtained findings suggest that the aromatized olive oils with local plants is sensorial and nutritionally acceptable and can be used safely in aromatization and preparation of healthy and tasty foods at non-thermal process.

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