low dose aspirin
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PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003880
Si-Yeung Yu ◽  
Mary Sau-Man Ip ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Ka-Shing Cheung ◽  
Qing-Wen Ren ◽  

Background Evidence suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a higher risk of lung carcinoma. Using a territory-wide clinical electronic medical records system, we investigated the association between low-dose aspirin use (≤160 mg) among patients with COPD and incidence of lung carcinoma and the corresponding risk of bleeding. Methods and findings This is a retrospective cohort study conducted utilizing Clinical Data Analysis Reporting System (CDARS), a territory-wide database developed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance baseline covariates between aspirin nonusers (35,049 patients) with new aspirin users (7,679 patients) among all eligible COPD patients from 2005 to 2018 attending any public hospitals. The median age of the cohort was 75.7 years (SD = 11.5), and 80.3% were male. Competing risk regression with Cox proportional hazards model were performed to estimate the subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) of lung carcinoma with low-dose aspirin and the associated bleeding events. Of all eligible patients, 1,779 (4.2%, 1,526 and 253 among nonusers and users) were diagnosed with lung carcinoma over a median follow-up period of 2.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.4 to 4.8). Aspirin use was associated with a 25% lower risk of lung carcinoma (SHR = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65 to 0.87, p = <0.001) and 26% decrease in lung carcinoma–related mortality (SHR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.86, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that aspirin was beneficial for patients aged above or below 75 years, but was also beneficial among populations who were male, nondiabetic, and nonhypertensive. Aspirin use was not associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (SHR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.53, p = 0.16), but was associated with an increased risk of hemoptysis (SHR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.73 to 2.23, p < 0.001). The main limitations of the study were (i) that one group of patients may be more likely to seek additional medical attention, although this was partially mitigated by the use of propensity score analysis; and (ii) the observational nature of the study renders it unable to establish causality between aspirin use and lung carcinoma incidence. Conclusions In this study, we observed that low-dose aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of lung carcinoma and lung carcinoma–related mortality among COPD patients. While aspirin was not associated with an increased risk of UGIB, the risk of hemoptysis was elevated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S291
Christy Gandhi ◽  
Valery A. Danilack ◽  
Phinnara Has ◽  
Audra Fain ◽  
Martha B. Kole-White

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S651-S652
Calvin L. Ward ◽  
Katherine Vignes ◽  
Aarthi Srinivasan ◽  
Cynthia Cockerham ◽  
Hong Huang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S75-S76
Kelsey White ◽  
Moeun Son ◽  
Lisbet S. Lundsberg ◽  
Jennifer F. Culhane ◽  
Caitlin Partridge ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S335
Sabrena Myers ◽  
Shauntell Luke ◽  
Khaila Ramey Collier ◽  
Tracy Truong ◽  
Kristin Weaver ◽  

MA Hoffman ◽  
MJ Murphy ◽  
MC Koester ◽  
EC Norcross ◽  
ST Johnson

Abstract The athletic trainer's (AT) emergency management skill set requires competency in the delivery of basic lifesaving medications. Some lifesaving medications have been a part of athletic training practice for decades, but that list has grown as ATs' practice setting has expanded - increasing the types of em ergent conditions that the AT may have to treat. The 2020 CAATE curricular standards require athletic training students be trained to administer the following: supplemental oxygen, nitroglycerine, low dose aspirin, bronchodilators, epinephrine using automated injection device, glucagon, and naloxone. Clinically, the conditions treated by these medications can be categorized as follows: cardiac, respiratory, hypoglycemia, or anaphylaxis. All ATs should know the indications, contraindications, administration methods, and the details of patient monitoring for each medication. Generally, these medications are safe, have clear indications for use, and few contraindications. While ATs are trained to administer these medications, they must consider state laws and local policies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Damin Zhu ◽  
Huijuan Zou ◽  
Jinxian Liu ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Cong Ma ◽  

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common complication of pregnancy that affects the physical and mental health of pregnant women, and approximately 50% of the mechanisms are unclear. Our previous studies have found that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) molecules are highly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) patients. The purpose of this study was to further detect the expression of HMGB1 and pyroptosis in decidual tissue of URSA patients, and explore the potential mechanism of the protective role of HMGB1 in URSA patients and mouse model. The decidua tissues of 75 URSA patients and 75 women who actively terminated pregnancy were collected, and URSA mouse models were established and treated with HMGB1 inhibitor-aspirin. The expression of HMGB1, and their receptors (RAGE, TLR2, TLR4), pyroptosis-associated proteins (NLRP-3, caspase-1, GSDMD) and NF-κB was examined at the maternal-fetal interface of human and mouse. Our study found that HMGB1, NLRP-3, Caspase-1, GSDMD, RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4 were highly expressed and NF-κB signaling pathway were activated in the decidua tissue of URSA group. Moreover, immune cell disorder and co-localization of HMGB1 and macrophages were found at the maternal-fetal interface of URSA mice. However, HMGB1, TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB, and pyroptosis-associated proteins can be down-regulated by administering low-dose aspirin. These data may indicate that highly expressed HMGB1 was actively secreted by macrophages and then activated pyroptosis through the TLR2/TLR4-NF-κB pathway to cause aseptic inflammation, leading to the occurrence and development of URSA. Moreover, low-dose aspirin can reduce HMGB1 protein levels of serum and decidual in URSA.

2021 ◽  
pp. dtb-2021-000071

AbstractOverview of: Henderson JT, Vesco KK, Senger CA, et al. Aspirin use to prevent preeclampsia and related morbidity and mortality: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2021;326:1192–1206.

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