Morbidity And Mortality
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-188
Author(s):  
Silé Souam Nguélé ◽  
Adrienne Ngaringuem ◽  
Kounnezouné Patalet ◽  
Kanezouné Gongnet ◽  
Djaury Dadji-a ◽  
...  

Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuemiao Zhang ◽  
Xingzi Liu ◽  
Miaomiao Lin ◽  
Jincan Zan ◽  
Yitong Hu ◽  
...  

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related morbidity and mortality. However, a significant portion of CKD patients showed hesitation toward vaccination in telephone survey of our center. Yet no serial data available on humoral response in patients with CKD, especially those on immunosuppression. We conducted a pilot, prospective study to survey the safety and humoral response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in CKD patients receiving a 2-dose immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We found the neutralizing antibody titers in CKD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls, hypertension patients, and diabetes patients. Notably, immunosuppressive medication rather than eGFR levels or disease types showed effect on the reduction of immunogenicity. Interestingly, a third dose significantly boosted neutralizing antibody in CKD patients while immunosuppressants impeded the boosting effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that CKD patients, even for those on immunosuppression treatment, can benefit from a third vaccination boost by improving their humoral immunity.


Author(s):  
David Moro-Valdezate ◽  
José Martín-Arévalo ◽  
Vicente Pla-Martí ◽  
Stephanie García-Botello ◽  
Ana Izquierdo-Moreno ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose To analyze the treatment outcomes for sigmoid volvulus (SV) and identify risk factors of complications and mortality. Methods Observational study of all consecutive adult patients diagnosed with SV who were admitted from January 2000 to December 2020 in a tertiary university institution for conservative management, urgent or elective surgery. Primary outcomes were 30-day postoperative morbidity, mortality and 2-year overall survival (OS), including analysis of risk factors for postoperative morbidity or mortality and prognostic factors for 2-year OS. Results A total of 92 patients were included. Conservative management was performed in 43 cases (46.7%), 27 patients (29.4%) underwent emergent surgery and 22 (23.9%) were scheduled for elective surgery. Successful decompression was achieved in 87.8% of cases, but the recurrence rate was 47.2%. Mortality rates following episodes were higher for conservative treatment than for urgent or elective surgery (37.2%, 22.2%, 9.1%, respectively; p = 0.044). ASA score > III was an independent risk factor for complications (OR = 5.570, 95% CI = 1.740–17.829, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 6.139, 95% CI = 2.629–14.335, p < 0.001) in the 30 days after admission. Patients who underwent elective surgery showed higher 2-year OS than those with conservative treatment (p = 0.011). Elective surgery (HR = 2.604, 95% CI = 1.185–5.714, p = 0.017) and ASA score > III (HR = 0.351, 95% CI = 0.192–0.641, p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for 2-year OS. Conclusion Successful endoscopic decompression can be achieved in most SV patients, but with the drawbacks of high recurrence, morbidity and mortality rates. Concurrent severe comorbidities and conservative treatment were independent prognostic factors for morbidity and survival in SV.


Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Manaswinee Mallik ◽  
Abhishek Singhai ◽  
Sagar Khadanga ◽  
Vaibhav Ingle

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jolene Si Min Wong ◽  
Sze Min Lek ◽  
Daniel Yan Zheng Lim ◽  
Claramae Shulyn Chia ◽  
Grace Hwei Ching Tan ◽  
...  

BackgroundPalliative gastrointestinal (GI) surgery potentially relieves distressing symptoms arising from intestinal obstruction (IO) in patients with advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). As surgery is associated with significant morbidity risks in advanced cancer patients, it is important for surgeons to select patients who can benefit the most from this approach. Hence, we aim to determine predictors of morbidity and mortality after palliative surgery in patients with PC. In addition, we evaluate the utility of the UC Davis Cancer Care nomogram (UCDCCn) and develop a simplified model to predict short-term surgical mortality in these patients.MethodsA retrospective review of patients with IO secondary to PC undergoing palliative GI surgery was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of 30-day morbidity and mortality after surgery. UCDCCn was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) for discriminatory power and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for calibration. Our simplified model was developed using logistic regression and evaluated using cross-validation.ResultsA total of 254 palliative GI surgeries were performed over a 10-year duration. The 30-day morbidity and mortality were 43% (n = 110) and 21% (n = 53), respectively. Preoperative albumin, age, and emergency nature of surgery were significant independent predictors for 30-day morbidity. A simplified model using preoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status and albumin (AUC = 0.71) achieved better predictive power than UCDCCn (AUC = 0.66) for 30-day mortality.ConclusionGood ECOG status and high preoperative albumin levels were independently associated with good short-term outcomes after palliative GI surgery. Our simplified model may be used to conveniently and efficiently select patients who stand to benefit the most from surgery.


Author(s):  
Reza Sadeghi ◽  
Benjamin Tomka ◽  
Seyedvahid Khodaei ◽  
Julio Garcia ◽  
Javier Ganame ◽  
...  

Background Despite ongoing advances in surgical techniques for coarctation of the aorta (COA) repair, the long‐term results are not always benign. Associated mixed valvular diseases (various combinations of aortic and mitral valvular pathologies) are responsible for considerable postoperative morbidity and mortality. We investigated the impact of COA and mixed valvular diseases on hemodynamics. Methods and Results We developed a patient‐specific computational framework. Our results demonstrate that mixed valvular diseases interact with COA fluid dynamics and contribute to speed up the progression of the disease by amplifying the irregular flow patterns downstream of COA (local) and exacerbating the left ventricular function (global) (N=26). Velocity downstream of COA with aortic regurgitation alone was increased, and the situation got worse when COA and aortic regurgitation coexisted with mitral regurgitation (COA with normal valves: 5.27 m/s, COA with only aortic regurgitation: 8.8 m/s, COA with aortic and mitral regurgitation: 9.36 m/s; patient 2). Workload in these patients was increased because of the presence of aortic stenosis alone, aortic regurgitation alone, mitral regurgitation alone, and when they coexisted (COA with normal valves: 1.0617 J; COA with only aortic stenosis: 1.225 J; COA with only aortic regurgitation: 1.6512 J; COA with only mitral regurgitation: 1.3599 J; patient 1). Conclusions Not only the severity of COA, but also the presence and the severity of mixed valvular disease should be considered in the evaluation of risks in patients. The results suggest that more aggressive surgical approaches may be required, because regularly chosen current surgical techniques may not be optimal for such patients.


Author(s):  
Luana Antunes Maranha Gatto ◽  
Bruno Henrique Dallo Gallo ◽  
Gelson Luis Koppe ◽  
Zeferino Demartini

Abstract Introduction Vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, causing high morbidity and mortality. There is no effective and consistent way to prevent or treat cerebral vasospasm capable of altering the morbidity and mortality of this complication. Animal and human studies have attempted to show improvement in aneurysmal vasospasm. Some sought their prevention; others, the treatment of already installed vasospasm. Some achieved only angiographic improvement without clinical correlation, others achieved both, but with ephemeral duration or at the expense of very harmful associated effects. Endovascular techniques allow immediate and aggressive treatment of cerebral vasospasm and include methods such as mechanical and chemical angioplasty. These methods have risks and benefits. Objectives To analyze the results of chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin (GTN). In addition, to perform a comprehensive review and analysis of aneurysmal vasospasm. Methods We describe our series of 77 patients treated for 8 years with angioplasty for vasospasm, either mechanical (with balloon), chemical (with GTN) or both. Results Eleven patients received only balloon; 37 received only GTN; 29 received both. Forty-four patients (70.1%) evolved with delayed cerebral ischemia and 19 died (mortality of 24.7%). Two deaths were causally related to the rupture of the vessel by the balloon. The only predictors of poor outcome were the need for external ventricular drainage in the first hours of admission, and isolated mechanical angioplasty. Conclusions Balloon angioplasty has excellent results, but it is restricted to proximal vessels and is not without complications. Chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin has reasonable but short-lived results and further research is needed about it. It is restricted to vasospasm angioplasties only in hospitals, like ours, where better and more potent vasodilator agents are not available.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Demian da Silveira Barcellos ◽  
Giovane Matheus Kayser Fernandes ◽  
Fábio Teodoro de Souza

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 786
Author(s):  
Gracia Fahed ◽  
Laurence Aoun ◽  
Morgan Bou Zerdan ◽  
Sabine Allam ◽  
Maroun Bou Zerdan ◽  
...  

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) forms a cluster of metabolic dysregulations including insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension. The pathogenesis of MetS encompasses multiple genetic and acquired entities that fall under the umbrella of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation. If left untreated, MetS is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Given that CVDs constitute by far the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, it has become essential to investigate the role played by MetS in this context to reduce the heavy burden of the disease. As such, and while MetS relatively constitutes a novel clinical entity, the extent of research about the disease has been exponentially growing in the past few decades. However, many aspects of this clinical entity are still not completely understood, and many questions remain unanswered to date. In this review, we provide a historical background and highlight the epidemiology of MetS. We also discuss the current and latest knowledge about the histopathology and pathophysiology of the disease. Finally, we summarize the most recent updates about the management and the prevention of this clinical syndrome.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Author(s):  
Flavio Maria Ceci ◽  
Marco Fiore ◽  
Francesca Gavaruzzi ◽  
Antonio Angeloni ◽  
Marco Lucarelli ◽  
...  

Background. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family. This disease has spread rapidly around the world and soon became an international public health emergency leading to an unpredicted pressure on the hospital emergency units. Early routine blood biomarkers could be key predicting factors of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality as suggested for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, prothrombin and D-dimer. This study aims to identify other early routine blood biomarkers for COVID-19 severity prediction disclosed directly into the emergency section. Methods. Our research was conducted on 156 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Sapienza University Hospital “Policlinico Umberto I” of Rome, Italy, between March 2020 and April 2020 during the paroxysm’s initial phase of the pandemic. In this retrospective study, patients were divided into three groups according to their outcome: (1) emergency group (patients who entered the emergency room and were discharged shortly after because they did not show severe symptoms); (2) intensive care unit (ICU) group (patients who attended the ICU after admission to the emergency unit); (3) the deceased group (patients with a fatal outcome who attended the emergency and, afterward, the ICU units). Routine laboratory tests from medical records were collected when patients were admitted to the emergency unit. We focused on Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK), Myoglobin (MGB), Ferritin, CRP, and D-dimer. Results. As expected, ANOVA data show an age morbidity increase in both ICU and deceased groups compared with the emergency group. A main effect of morbidity was revealed by ANOVA for all the analyzed parameters with an elevation between the emergency group and the deceased group. Furthermore, a significant increase in LDH, Ferritin, CRP, and D-dimer was also observed between the ICU group and the emergency group and between the deceased group and ICU group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed and extended these findings. Conclusions. This study suggests that the contemporaneous presence of high levels of LDH, Ferritin, and as expected, CRP, and D-dimer could be considered as potential predictors of COVID-19 severity and death.


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