Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.
As the UK rebuilds and recovers after the COVID-19 pandemic, tackling socioeconomic inequalities will become increasingly pertinent. The link between health and wealth has been long established, with those at the highest risk of illness also being less likely to access healthcare. The pandemic has highlighted these disparities, with higher morbidity and mortality rates seen in deprived areas, as well as among ethnic minority communities. Leaders and clinicians across the NHS and social care have called for a ‘reset’ in the way healthcare is planned, commissioned and delivered in the UK. There is a growing need for a holistic approach to disease prevention, and it is crucial that government agencies take a strong role in addressing the wider determinants of health.
To analyze the treatment outcomes for sigmoid volvulus (SV) and identify risk factors of complications and mortality.
Observational study of all consecutive adult patients diagnosed with SV who were admitted from January 2000 to December 2020 in a tertiary university institution for conservative management, urgent or elective surgery. Primary outcomes were 30-day postoperative morbidity, mortality and 2-year overall survival (OS), including analysis of risk factors for postoperative morbidity or mortality and prognostic factors for 2-year OS.
A total of 92 patients were included. Conservative management was performed in 43 cases (46.7%), 27 patients (29.4%) underwent emergent surgery and 22 (23.9%) were scheduled for elective surgery. Successful decompression was achieved in 87.8% of cases, but the recurrence rate was 47.2%. Mortality rates following episodes were higher for conservative treatment than for urgent or elective surgery (37.2%, 22.2%, 9.1%, respectively; p = 0.044). ASA score > III was an independent risk factor for complications (OR = 5.570, 95% CI = 1.740–17.829, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 6.139, 95% CI = 2.629–14.335, p < 0.001) in the 30 days after admission. Patients who underwent elective surgery showed higher 2-year OS than those with conservative treatment (p = 0.011). Elective surgery (HR = 2.604, 95% CI = 1.185–5.714, p = 0.017) and ASA score > III (HR = 0.351, 95% CI = 0.192–0.641, p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for 2-year OS.
Successful endoscopic decompression can be achieved in most SV patients, but with the drawbacks of high recurrence, morbidity and mortality rates. Concurrent severe comorbidities and conservative treatment were independent prognostic factors for morbidity and survival in SV.
BackgroundPalliative gastrointestinal (GI) surgery potentially relieves distressing symptoms arising from intestinal obstruction (IO) in patients with advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). As surgery is associated with significant morbidity risks in advanced cancer patients, it is important for surgeons to select patients who can benefit the most from this approach. Hence, we aim to determine predictors of morbidity and mortality after palliative surgery in patients with PC. In addition, we evaluate the utility of the UC Davis Cancer Care nomogram (UCDCCn) and develop a simplified model to predict short-term surgical mortality in these patients.MethodsA retrospective review of patients with IO secondary to PC undergoing palliative GI surgery was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of 30-day morbidity and mortality after surgery. UCDCCn was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) for discriminatory power and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for calibration. Our simplified model was developed using logistic regression and evaluated using cross-validation.ResultsA total of 254 palliative GI surgeries were performed over a 10-year duration. The 30-day morbidity and mortality were 43% (n = 110) and 21% (n = 53), respectively. Preoperative albumin, age, and emergency nature of surgery were significant independent predictors for 30-day morbidity. A simplified model using preoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status and albumin (AUC = 0.71) achieved better predictive power than UCDCCn (AUC = 0.66) for 30-day mortality.ConclusionGood ECOG status and high preoperative albumin levels were independently associated with good short-term outcomes after palliative GI surgery. Our simplified model may be used to conveniently and efficiently select patients who stand to benefit the most from surgery.
Despite ongoing advances in surgical techniques for coarctation of the aorta (COA) repair, the long‐term results are not always benign. Associated mixed valvular diseases (various combinations of aortic and mitral valvular pathologies) are responsible for considerable postoperative morbidity and mortality. We investigated the impact of COA and mixed valvular diseases on hemodynamics.
Methods and Results
We developed a patient‐specific computational framework. Our results demonstrate that mixed valvular diseases interact with COA fluid dynamics and contribute to speed up the progression of the disease by amplifying the irregular flow patterns downstream of COA (local) and exacerbating the left ventricular function (global) (N=26). Velocity downstream of COA with aortic regurgitation alone was increased, and the situation got worse when COA and aortic regurgitation coexisted with mitral regurgitation (COA with normal valves: 5.27 m/s, COA with only aortic regurgitation: 8.8 m/s, COA with aortic and mitral regurgitation: 9.36 m/s; patient 2). Workload in these patients was increased because of the presence of aortic stenosis alone, aortic regurgitation alone, mitral regurgitation alone, and when they coexisted (COA with normal valves: 1.0617 J; COA with only aortic stenosis: 1.225 J; COA with only aortic regurgitation: 1.6512 J; COA with only mitral regurgitation: 1.3599 J; patient 1).
Not only the severity of COA, but also the presence and the severity of mixed valvular disease should be considered in the evaluation of risks in patients. The results suggest that more aggressive surgical approaches may be required, because regularly chosen current surgical techniques may not be optimal for such patients.
Introduction Vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, causing high morbidity and mortality. There is no effective and consistent way to prevent or treat cerebral vasospasm capable of altering the morbidity and mortality of this complication. Animal and human studies have attempted to show improvement in aneurysmal vasospasm. Some sought their prevention; others, the treatment of already installed vasospasm. Some achieved only angiographic improvement without clinical correlation, others achieved both, but with ephemeral duration or at the expense of very harmful associated effects. Endovascular techniques allow immediate and aggressive treatment of cerebral vasospasm and include methods such as mechanical and chemical angioplasty. These methods have risks and benefits.
Objectives To analyze the results of chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin (GTN). In addition, to perform a comprehensive review and analysis of aneurysmal vasospasm.
Methods We describe our series of 77 patients treated for 8 years with angioplasty for vasospasm, either mechanical (with balloon), chemical (with GTN) or both.
Results Eleven patients received only balloon; 37 received only GTN; 29 received both. Forty-four patients (70.1%) evolved with delayed cerebral ischemia and 19 died (mortality of 24.7%). Two deaths were causally related to the rupture of the vessel by the balloon. The only predictors of poor outcome were the need for external ventricular drainage in the first hours of admission, and isolated mechanical angioplasty.
Conclusions Balloon angioplasty has excellent results, but it is restricted to proximal vessels and is not without complications. Chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin has reasonable but short-lived results and further research is needed about it. It is restricted to vasospasm angioplasties only in hospitals, like ours, where better and more potent vasodilator agents are not available.
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated not only with intestinal disorders but also with numerous extraintestinal diseases. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (GHPA) is an insidious disease with persistent hypersecretion of GH and IGF-1, causing increased morbidity and mortality.