ObjectiveCalcium supplementation can prevent gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, besides the non-consensus of existing studies, there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal dosing of calcium.MethodEight electronic databases, namely, the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, WANGFANG, VIP, CBM, and CNKI, were searched. The studies were retrieved from inception to July 13, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality based on the inclusion criteria. In particular, the calcium supplementation doses were divided into three groups, namely, the high-dose (≥1.5 g), medium-dose (1.0–1.49 g), and the low-dose group (<1.0 g). The participants were also divided into high-risk and low-risk groups, according to the risk of developing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.Results and DiscussionA total of 48 studies were incorporated into the final analyses. All doses of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in the low-risk population (low dose - three studies; medium dose- 11 studies; high dose- 28 studies), whereas the medium-dose (three studies) reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in high-risk groups. Moreover, a medium dose of calcium supplementation had the maximum effect in reducing gestational hypertension in low-risk and high-risk populations. The medium (three studies) and high doses (13 studies) of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in the low-risk groups. However, a medium-dose calcium supplementation maximally prevented pre-eclampsia in the low-risk population. The authenticity and reliability of the results were reduced due to the limitations of contemporary studies in terms of experimental design, result measurement, statistics, and evidence quality. Therefore, high-quality studies with larger sample size are required to evaluate further the effect of calcium supplementation in preventing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.
Pikeperch Sander lucioperca is a piscivorous species considered a promising candidate for the diversification of intensive aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the effect of a sustained-release delivery system incorporating mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (mGnRHa) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles on the sex steroid levels and aspects of artificial reproduction of pikeperch. Fish were divided into four groups and injected with 20 µg mGnRHa/kg, 5-day release microparticles encapsulated with 5 µg GnRHa/kg BW (PLGA 5), 20 µg GnRHa/kg (PLGA 20), or 1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl (control). Cumulative percentage ovulation was 100% in the PLGA 5 group, significantly higher than in other tested groups. No differences among groups were observed in latency or fecundity. The level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) peaked at 40 h post-injection, and was sustained during ovulation, in all treated groups. The 17β-estradiol (E2) concentration increased in the mGnRHa-only group immediately after hormone injection, while both PLGA groups showed a reduction in E2 after injection, continuing to decrease until ovulation. A low dose of mGnRHa in PLGA microparticles significantly improves induction of ovulation and results in acceptable reproductive performance, which may positively affect pikeperch production under controlled conditions.
: Significant inter-individual variation in terms of susceptibility to several stress-related disorders, such as myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease, and therapeutic response has been observed among healthy subjects. The molecular features responsible for this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics, in association with bioinformatics analysis, offer a comprehensive description of molecular phenotypes with clear links to human disease pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative plasma proteomics analysis of glucocorticoid resistant and glucocorticoid sensitive healthy subjects and provide clues of the underlying physiological differences. For this purpose, 101 healthy volunteers were given a very low dose (0.25 mg) of dexamethasone at midnight, and were stratified into the 10% most glucocorticoid sensitive (S) (n = 11) and 10% most glucocorticoid resistant (R) (n = 11) according to the 08:00 h serum cortisol concentrations determined the following morning. One month following the very-low dose dexamethasone suppression test, DNA and plasma samples were collected from the 22 selected individuals. Sequencing analysis did not reveal any genetic defects in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. To investigate the proteomic profile of plasma samples, we used Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and found 110 up-regulated and 66 down-regulated proteins in the S compared to the R group. The majority of the up-regulated proteins in the S group were implicated in platelet activation. To predict response to cortisol prior to administration, a random forest classifier was developed by using the proteomics data in order to distinguish S from R individuals. Apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) and gelsolin (GSN) were the most important variables in the classification, and warrant further investigation. Our results indicate that a proteomics signature may differentiate the S from the R healthy subjects, and may be useful in clinical practice. In addition, it may provide clues of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the chronic stress-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and Alzheimer’s disease.
There is only one documented case of intracranial hypertension (IH) and empty sella from cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma so far. And IH and empty sella caused by long-term exogenous hypercortisolism has never been reported before. The purpose of this case report is to alert clinicians to glucocorticoid-induced IH.
We present retrospectively a 50-year-old woman with cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma, who progressed to intractable intracranial hypertension and a markedly expanded empty sella due to improper treatment. In 2011, the patient presented with hypertension, lack of cortisol circadian rhythm, low ACTH, a left adrenal adenoma and a partial empty sella, but did not receive low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and 24-h urinary cortisol. In 2014, she exhibited truncal obesity, raised cortisol, LDDST non-suppression, high urinary free cortisol and low ACTH, proving her cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. She was simultaneously diagnosed with unexplained IH because of papilledema and elevated intracranial pressure, and her partial empty sella changed to a complete empty sella. In 2015, she underwent adrenal adenoma resection. From 2015 to 2018, she kept taking dexamethasone at least 2 mg daily without her doctors’ consent. During this period, she developed transient cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, and her empty sella further worsened. After switching to low dose hydrocortisone, her papilledema disappeared completely, but optic atrophy has become irreversible.
The patient seems to be just an extreme case, but it may reveal and illustrate a general phenomenon: Both cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma and long-term exogenous hypercortisolism could cause varying degrees of elevated intracranial pressure and empty sella. Clinicians should remain vigilant for this phenomenon in patients with cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma or excessive and prolonged steroid usage and give them corresponding examinations to identify this complication.
Different prophylactic and episodic clotting factor treatments are used in the management of hemophilia. A summarize of the evidence is needed inform decision-making.
To compare the effects of factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia.
We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Central Cochrane Library, and Scopus. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to December 2020, which compared different factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed whenever possible. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021225857).
Nine RCTs were included in this review, of which six compared episodic with prophylactic treatment, all of them performed in patients with hemophilia A. Pooled results showed that, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (ratio of means [RM]: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.36), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.13). With significant difference between these subgroups (p = 0.003, I2 = 82.9%). In addition, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized joint bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.27), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.16). Without significant subgroup differences. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes according to GRADE methodology. The other studies compared different types of clotting factor concentrates (CFCs), assessed pharmacokinetic prophylaxis, or compared different frequencies of medication administration.
Our results suggest that prophylactic treatment (at either low, intermediate, or high doses) is superior to episodic treatment for bleeding prevention. In patients with hemophilia A, the bleeding rate seems to have a dose-response effect. However, no study compared different doses of prophylactic treatment, and all results had a very low certainty of the evidence. Thus, future studies are needed to confirm these results and inform decision making.