related mortality
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2022 ◽  
Vol 100 ◽  
pp. 103525
Caroline A. King ◽  
Ryan Cook ◽  
Haven Wheelock ◽  
P. Todd Korthuis ◽  
Judith M Leahy ◽  

Pierre Masselot ◽  
Fateh Chebana ◽  
Taha B. M. J. Ouarda ◽  
Diane Bélanger ◽  
Pierre Gosselin

Although the relationship between weather and health is widely studied, there are still gaps in this knowledge. The present paper proposes data transformation as a way to address these gaps and discusses four different strategies designed to study particular aspects of a weather–health relationship, including (i) temporally aggregating the series, (ii) decomposing the different time scales of the data by empirical model decomposition, (iii) disaggregating the exposure series by considering the whole daily temperature curve as a single function, and (iv) considering the whole year of data as a single, continuous function. These four strategies allow studying non-conventional aspects of the mortality-temperature relationship by retrieving non-dominant time scale from data and allow to study the impact of the time of occurrence of particular event. A real-world case study of temperature-related cardiovascular mortality in the city of Montreal, Canada illustrates that these strategies can shed new lights on the relationship and outlines their strengths and weaknesses. A cross-validation comparison shows that the flexibility of functional regression used in strategies (iii) and (iv) allows a good fit of temperature-related mortality. These strategies can help understanding more accurately climate-related health.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 190
Catarina Melim ◽  
Maria R. Lauro ◽  
Isabel M. Pires ◽  
Paulo J. Oliveira ◽  
Célia Cabral

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is composed of rapidly renewing cells, which increase the likelihood of cancer. Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed GI cancers and currently stands in second place regarding cancer-related mortality. Unfortunately, the treatment of GI is limited, and few developments have occurred in the field over the years. With this in mind, new therapeutic strategies involving biologically active phytocompounds are being evaluated as anti-cancer agents. Vegetables such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, and radish, all belonging to the Brassicaceae family, are high in dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols, and glucosinolates. The latter compound is a secondary metabolite characteristic of this family and, when biologically active, has demonstrated anti-cancer properties. This article reviews the literature regarding the potential of Cruciferous vegetables in the prevention and/or treatment of GI cancers and the relevance of appropriate compound formulations for improving the stability and bioaccessibility of the major Cruciferous compounds, with a particular focus on glucosinolates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marc De Hert ◽  
Victor Mazereel ◽  
Marc Stroobants ◽  
Livia De Picker ◽  
Kristof Van Assche ◽  

Background: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that people with severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Several systematic reviews examining the association between psychiatric disorders and COVID-19-related mortality have recently been published. Although these reviews have been conducted thoroughly, certain methodological limitations may hinder the accuracy of their research findings.Methods: A systematic literature search, using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from inception to July 23, 2021), was conducted for observational studies assessing the risk of death associated with COVID-19 infection in adult patients with pre-existing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, BD, or MDD. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).Results: Of 1,446 records screened, 13 articles investigating the rates of death in patients with pre-existing SMI were included in this systematic review. Quality assessment scores of the included studies ranged from moderate to high. Most results seem to indicate that patients with SMI, particularly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are at significantly higher risk of COVID-19-related mortality, as compared to patients without SMI. However, the extent of the variation in COVID-19-related mortality rates between studies including people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was large because of a low level of precision of the estimated mortality outcome(s) in certain studies. Most studies on MDD and BD did not include specific information on the mood state or disease severity of patients. Due to a lack of data, it remains unknown to what extent patients with BD are at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality. A variety of factors are likely to contribute to the increased mortality risk of COVID-19 in these patients. These include male sex, older age, somatic comorbidities (particularly cardiovascular diseases), as well as disease-specific characteristics.Conclusion: Methodological limitations hamper the accuracy of COVID-19-related mortality estimates for the main categories of SMIs. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that SMI is associated with excess COVID-19 mortality. Policy makers therefore must consider these vulnerable individuals as a high-risk group that should be given particular attention. This means that targeted interventions to maximize vaccination uptake among these patients are required to address the higher burden of COVID-19 infection in this already disadvantaged group.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003880
Si-Yeung Yu ◽  
Mary Sau-Man Ip ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Ka-Shing Cheung ◽  
Qing-Wen Ren ◽  

Background Evidence suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a higher risk of lung carcinoma. Using a territory-wide clinical electronic medical records system, we investigated the association between low-dose aspirin use (≤160 mg) among patients with COPD and incidence of lung carcinoma and the corresponding risk of bleeding. Methods and findings This is a retrospective cohort study conducted utilizing Clinical Data Analysis Reporting System (CDARS), a territory-wide database developed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance baseline covariates between aspirin nonusers (35,049 patients) with new aspirin users (7,679 patients) among all eligible COPD patients from 2005 to 2018 attending any public hospitals. The median age of the cohort was 75.7 years (SD = 11.5), and 80.3% were male. Competing risk regression with Cox proportional hazards model were performed to estimate the subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) of lung carcinoma with low-dose aspirin and the associated bleeding events. Of all eligible patients, 1,779 (4.2%, 1,526 and 253 among nonusers and users) were diagnosed with lung carcinoma over a median follow-up period of 2.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.4 to 4.8). Aspirin use was associated with a 25% lower risk of lung carcinoma (SHR = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65 to 0.87, p = <0.001) and 26% decrease in lung carcinoma–related mortality (SHR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.86, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that aspirin was beneficial for patients aged above or below 75 years, but was also beneficial among populations who were male, nondiabetic, and nonhypertensive. Aspirin use was not associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (SHR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.53, p = 0.16), but was associated with an increased risk of hemoptysis (SHR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.73 to 2.23, p < 0.001). The main limitations of the study were (i) that one group of patients may be more likely to seek additional medical attention, although this was partially mitigated by the use of propensity score analysis; and (ii) the observational nature of the study renders it unable to establish causality between aspirin use and lung carcinoma incidence. Conclusions In this study, we observed that low-dose aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of lung carcinoma and lung carcinoma–related mortality among COPD patients. While aspirin was not associated with an increased risk of UGIB, the risk of hemoptysis was elevated.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Shengshu Wang ◽  
Shanshan Yang ◽  
Wangping Jia ◽  
Ke Han ◽  
Yang Song ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Louis Duchemin ◽  
Philippe Veber ◽  
Bastien Boussau

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hiroaki Tsujikawa ◽  
Shunsuke Yamada ◽  
Hiroto Hiyamuta ◽  
Masatomo Taniguchi ◽  
Kazuhiko Tsuruya ◽  

AbstractWomen have a longer life expectancy than men in the general population. However, it has remained unclear whether this advantage is maintained in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of mortality, especially infection-related mortality, between male and female hemodialysis patients. A total of 3065 Japanese hemodialysis patients aged ≥ 18 years old were followed up for 10 years. The primary outcomes were all-cause and infection-related mortality. The associations between sex and these outcomes were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. During the median follow-up of 8.8 years, 1498 patients died of any cause, 387 of whom died of infection. Compared with men, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for all-cause and infection-related mortality in women were 0.51 (0.45–0.58, P < 0.05) and 0.36 (0.27–0.47, P < 0.05), respectively. These findings remained significant even when propensity score-matching or inverse probability of treatment weighting adjustment methods were employed. Furthermore, even when the non-infection-related mortality was considered a competing risk, the infection-related mortality rate in women was still significantly lower than that in men. Regarding all-cause and infection-related deaths, women have a survival advantage compared with men among Japanese patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Getrud Joseph Mollel ◽  
Lilian Moshi ◽  
Hoda Hazem ◽  
Anna Eichenberger ◽  
Olivia Kitau ◽  

Abstract Background Nearly half of HIV-related deaths occur in East and Southern Africa, yet data on causes of death (COD) are scarce. We determined COD and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in rural Tanzania. Methods PLHIV attending the Chronic Diseases Clinic of Ifakara, Morogoro are invited to enrol in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO). Among adults (≥ 15 years) enrolled in 2005–2018, with follow-up through April 2019, we classified COD in comprehensive classes and as HIV- or non-HIV-related. In the subset of participants enrolled in 2013–2018 (when data were more complete), we assessed cause-specific mortality using cumulative incidences, and associated factors using proportional hazards models. Results Among 9871 adults (65% female, 26% CD4 count < 100 cells/mm3), 926 (9%) died, among whom COD were available for 474 (51%), with missing COD mainly in earlier years. The most common COD were tuberculosis (N = 127, 27%), non-AIDS-related infections (N = 72, 15%), and other AIDS-related infections (N = 59, 12%). Cardiovascular and renal deaths emerged as important COD in later calendar years, with 27% of deaths in 2018 attributable to cardiovascular causes. Most deaths (51%) occurred within the first six months following enrolment. Among 3956 participants enrolled in 2013–2018 (N = 203 deaths, 200 with COD ascertained), tuberculosis persisted as the most common COD (25%), but substantial proportions of deaths from six months after enrolment onwards were attributable to renal (14%), non-AIDS-related infections (13%), other AIDS-related infections (10%) and cardiovascular (10%) causes. Factors associated with higher HIV-related mortality were sex, younger age, living in Ifakara town, HIV status disclosure, hospitalisation, not being underweight, lower CD4 count, advanced WHO stage, and gaps in care. Factors associated with higher non-HIV-related mortality included not having an HIV-positive partner, lower CD4 count, advanced WHO stage, and gaps in care. Conclusion Incidence of HIV-related mortality was higher than that of non-HIV-related mortality, even in more recent years, likely due to late presentation. Tuberculosis was the leading specific COD identified, particularly soon after enrolment, while in later calendar years cardiovascular and renal causes emerged as important, emphasising the need for improved screening and management.

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