Autistic teenagers are suspected to be more vulnerable to privacy and safety threats on social networking sites (SNS) than the general population. However, there are no studies comparing these users’ privacy and safety concerns and protective strategies online with those reported by non-autistic teenagers. Furthermore, researchers have yet to identify possible explanations for autistic teenagers’ increased risk of online harms. To address these research gaps, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 autistic and 16 non-autistic teenagers assessing their privacy- and safety-related attitudes and behaviors on SNS, and factors affecting them. We used videos demonstrating relevant SNS scenarios as prompts to engage participants in conversation. Through our thematic analyses, we found evidence that autistic teenagers may be more averse to taking risks on SNS than non-autistic teenagers. Yet, several personal, social, and SNS design factors may make autistic teenagers more vulnerable to cyberbullying and social exclusion online. We provide recommendations for making SNS safer for autistic teenagers. Our research highlights the need for more inclusive usable privacy and security research with this population.
Neoplasic transformation is a continuous process that occurs in the body. Even before clinical signs, the immune system is capable of recognizing these aberrant cells and reacting to suppress them. However, transformed cells acquire the ability to evade innate and adaptive immune defenses through the secretion of molecules that inhibit immune effector functions, resulting in tumor progression. Hormones have the ability to modulate the immune system and are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Hormones can control both the innate and adaptive immune systems in men and women. For example androgens reduce immunity through modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Women are more prone than men to suffer from autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and others. This is linked to female hormones modulating the immune system. Patients with autoimmune diseases consistently have an increased risk of cancer, either as a result of underlying immune system dysregulation or as a side effect of pharmaceutical treatments. Epidemiological data on cancer incidence emphasize the link between the immune system and cancer. We outline and illustrate the occurrence of hormone-related cancer and its relationship to the immune system or autoimmune diseases in this review. It is obvious that some observations are contentious and require explanation of molecular mechanisms and validation. As a result, future research should clarify the molecular pathways involved, including any causal relationships, in order to eventually allocate information that will aid in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer and autoimmune illness.
AbstractAge-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a complex multifactorial disorder. Studies in animals, including mitochondria-mutator mice, and in human suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial disturbance play an important role in the pathoetiology of ARHL. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are populations with genetically similar traits, and they have been reported to affect the mitochondrial function of oxidative phosphorylation. To gain further insights into the relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes and the susceptibility to cochlear aging, in this study, we aimed to elucidate how the differences in mtDNA haplogroups may affect ARHL development in Japanese general population. We focused on early onset ARHL, as the same mtDNA haplogroup can show either a negative or positive effect on systemic co-morbidities of ARHL that appear later in life. A total of 1167 participants of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were surveyed in 2014, and 12 major haplotype groups (D4a, D4b, D5, G1, G2, M7a, M7b, A, B4, B5, N9, and F) were selected for the analysis. A total of 698 subjects aged 30 to 65 years were included in the statistical analysis, and the hearing loss group consisted of 112 males (40.3%) and 111 females (26.4%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the male subjects belonging to haplogroup A had a significantly increased risk of hearing loss, whereas the female subjects belonging to haplogroup N9 had a significantly decreased risk of hearing loss. These results suggested that the mtDNA haplogroup may be an indicator for future risk of morbidity associated with ARHL.
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is higher in French Guiana compared to mainland France. These metabolic disorders are associated with an increased risk of cancer. One of the factors involved is hyperinsulinemia that promotes the action of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). The objective of this study is to characterize the expression of GLUT-1 in breast cancers cells in diabetic and obese patients compared to those who are not and to describe the clinical and histological prognostic factors of breast cancer in this population. We conducted a monocentric study including patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 2014 and 2020. Patients were classified into three groups: diabetes, obesity, and control group. The GLUT-1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In total, 199 patients were included in this study. The median age was 53.5 years, and the median tumor size was 2.8 cm. Luminal A was the most frequent molecular type (58.1%), followed by the triple-negative type (19.9%). The breast cancer in our population was characterized by a younger age at diagnosis, more aggressive molecular types, and larger tumor size. Thus, we suggest the advancement of the age of breast cancer screening in this territory. A total of 144 patients (31 diabetes, 22 obese, and 91 control group) were included for the study of GLUT-1 expression. Overexpression of GLUT-1 was observed in 60.4% of cases and in all carcinoma in situ lesions. GLUT-1 overexpression was associated with more aggressive cancers. This overexpression is correlated with high histological grade, high proliferation index, and aggressive molecular types. Our study found no difference in GLUT-1 expression between the diabetic or obese patients and the control group. These results highlight the potential role of GLUT-1 as a tumor metabolic prognostic marker and also as an interesting target therapy, independently of patient metabolic disorder.
Foodborne diseases affect an estimated 600 million people worldwide annually, with the majority of these illnesses caused by Norovirus, Vibrio, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. To elicit infections in humans, bacterial pathogens express a combination of virulence factors and toxins. AB5 toxins are an example of such toxins that can cause various clinical manifestations, including dehydration, diarrhea, kidney damage, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of most bacterial foodborne illnesses consists of fluid replacement and antibiotics. However, antibiotics are not recommended for infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) because of the increased risk of HUS development, although there are conflicting views and results in this regard. Lack of effective treatment strategies for STEC infections pose a public health threat during outbreaks; therefore, the debate on antibiotic use for STEC infections could be further explored, along with investigations into antibiotic alternatives. The overall goal of this review is to provide a succinct summary on the mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of AB5 and related toxins, as expressed by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with a primary focus on Shiga toxins (Stx). The role of Stx in human STEC disease, detection methodologies, and available treatment options are also briefly discussed.
AbstractCaptive breeding is often a last resort management option in the conservation of endangered species which can in turn lead to increased risk of inbreeding depression and loss of genetic diversity. Thus, recording breeding events via studbook for the purpose of estimating relatedness, and facilitating mating pair selection to minimize inbreeding, is common practice. However, as founder relatedness is often unknown, loss of genetic variation and inbreeding cannot be entirely avoided. Molecular genotyping is slowly being adopted in captive breeding programs, however achieving sufficient resolution can be challenging in small, low diversity, populations. Here, we evaluate the success of the Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis; VIM; among the worlds most endangered mammals) captive breeding program in preventing inbreeding and maintaining genetic diversity. We explored the use of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of microsatellite regions to assay greater genetic variation in both captive and wild populations than traditional length-based fragment analysis. Contrary to other studies, this method did not considerably increase diversity estimates, suggesting: (1) that the technique does not universally improve resolution, and (2) VIM have exceedingly low diversity. Studbook estimates of pairwise relatedness and inbreeding in the current population were weakly, but positively, correlated to molecular estimates. Thus, current studbooks are moderately effective at predicting genetic similarity when founder relatedness is known. Finally, we found that captive and wild populations did not differ in allelic frequencies, and conservation efforts to maintain diversity have been successful with no significant decrease in diversity over the last three generations.