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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yoav Benjamini ◽  
Richard De Veaux ◽  
Bradley Efron ◽  
Scott Evans ◽  
Mark Glickman ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-63
Author(s):  
Grace Zurielle Malolos ◽  
Joseph Christian Obnial ◽  
Rena Mallillin ◽  
Pamela Bianca Pasco ◽  
Erika Ong ◽  
...  

The Philippines is the largest Christian-majority country in Asia. With church gatherings playing a vital role in the nature of Christianity in the Filipino culture, the advent of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in the Philippines posed challenges to public religious practices amid efforts to mitigate COVID-19 community transmission. Various policy pronouncements from both the government-led Inter-Agency Task Force (IATF) on Emerging Diseases and the church-led Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) were issued. These guidelines were implemented in order to address the two-pronged problem on healthcare and religious obligations. While these guidelines were initially contributory to the mitigation of disease transmission, varied compliance by Filipinos was observed through the progression of the pandemic. Considering the value that church gatherings and religion play in the lives of the Filipino people, further studies on COVID-19 transmission in the church should be conducted in order to develop more efficient policies and guidelines on the practice of religion, particularly for religious gatherings. Furthermore, a more synergistic state and church cooperation must be encouraged in order to arrive at solutions that will mutually address the concomitant problems of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Critical Care ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Athanasios Chalkias ◽  
Nicolas Mongardon ◽  
Vladimir Boboshko ◽  
Vladimir Cerny ◽  
Anne-Laure Constant ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Perioperative cardiac arrest is a rare complication with an incidence of around 1 in 1400 cases, but it carries a high burden of mortality reaching up to 70% at 30 days. Despite its specificities, guidelines for treatment of perioperative cardiac arrest are lacking. Gathering the available literature may improve quality of care and outcome of patients. Methods The PERIOPCA Task Force identified major clinical questions about the management of perioperative cardiac arrest and framed them into the therapy population [P], intervention [I], comparator [C], and outcome [O] (PICO) format. Systematic searches of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for articles published until September 2020 were performed. Consensus-based treatment recommendations were created using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The strength of consensus among the Task Force members about the recommendations was assessed through a modified Delphi consensus process. Results Twenty-two PICO questions were addressed, and the recommendations were validated in two Delphi rounds. A summary of evidence for each outcome is reported and accompanied by an overall assessment of the evidence to guide healthcare providers. Conclusions The main limitations of our work lie in the scarcity of good quality evidence on this topic. Still, these recommendations provide a basis for decision making, as well as a guide for future research on perioperative cardiac arrest.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jodi Schneider ◽  
Nathan D. Woods ◽  
Randi Proescholdt ◽  
Yuanxi Fu ◽  
The RISRS Team

Retracted research is published work that is withdrawn, removed, or otherwise invalidated from the scientific and scholarly record. This may occur for many different reasons, which can include error, misconduct, or fraud. Retracting research is intended to stop its continued citation and use, but many retracted papers continue to be used.Retracted research that is integrated into the scientific publication network via citations—either before or after retraction—enables the inadvertent propagation of potentially unsupported or fabricated data, fundamental errors, and unreproducible results, or can lead to misattribution of results or ideas (e.g., in cases of retraction due to dual publication, plagiarism, or ownership). Research over the past decade has identified a number of factors contributing to the unintentional spread of retracted research. Many retracted papers are not marked as retracted on publisher and aggregator sites, and retracted articles may still be found in readers’ PDF libraries, including in reference management systems such as Zotero, EndNote, and Mendeley. Most publishers do not systematically surveil bibliographies of submitted manuscripts, and most editors do not query whether a citation to a retracted paper is justified. When citing retracted papers, authors frequently do not indicate retraction status in bibliographies or in-text citations.The goal of the Reducing the Inadvertent Spread of Retracted Science: Shaping a Research and Implementation Agenda (RISRS) project is to develop an actionable agenda for reducing the inadvertent spread of retracted science. This includes identifying how the gatekeepers of scientific publications can monitor and disseminate retraction status and determining what other actions are feasible and relevant.The RISRS process included an exploratory environment scan, a scoping review of empirical literature, and successive rounds of stakeholder consultation, culminating in a three-part online workshop (October 26, November 9, and November 16, 2020) that brought together a diverse body of 70 stakeholders to engage in collaborative problem solving and dialogue. Workshop discussions were seeded by materials derived from stakeholder interviews and short original discussion pieces contributed by stakeholders. The online workshop resulted in a set of recommendations to address the complexities of retracted research throughout the scholarly communications ecosystem. Recommendations were iteratively updated and developed through a series of surveys and drafts as well as at a followup meeting online February 16, 2021.The RISRS team solicited feedback from presentations to NISOPlus, the Society for Scholarly Publishing, and the European Association of Science Editors. Implementation actions have started through a COPE task force on taxonomy and discussions about a proposed National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Work Item. We welcome your feedback via the project website https://infoqualitylab.org/projects/risrs2020/ or by email to [email protected] We encourage you to disseminate these recommendations and to envision how you, in your role, and in collaborative partnerships, can make a difference. For instance, you might help form a professional working group to further develop or refine these recommendations; present about retraction and related issues at professional and academic meetings; take on an implementation or policy project; or outline further research to be conducted. Recommendations1. Develop a systematic cross-industry approach to ensure the public availability of consistent, standardized, interoperable, and timely information about retractions.2. Recommend a taxonomy of retraction categories/classifications and corresponding retraction metadata that can be adopted by all stakeholders.3. Develop best practices for coordinating the retraction process to enable timely, fair, unbiased outcomes.4. Educate stakeholders about publication correction processes including retraction and about pre- and post-publication stewardship of the scholarly record.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254350
Author(s):  
Emma Baillie ◽  
Piers D. L. Howe ◽  
Andrew Perfors ◽  
Tim Miller ◽  
Yoshihisa Kashima ◽  
...  

Building on previous research on the use of macroeconomic factors for conflict prediction and using data on political instability provided by the Political Instability Task Force, this article proposes two minimal forecasting models of political instability optimised to have the greatest possible predictive power for one-year and two-year event horizons, while still making predictions that are fully explainable. Both models employ logistic regression and use just three predictors: polity code (a measure of government type), infant mortality, and years of stability (i.e., years since the last instability event). These models make predictions for 176 countries on a country-year basis and achieve AUPRC’s of 0.108 and 0.115 for the one-year and two-year models respectively. They use public data with ongoing availability so are readily reproducible. They use Monte Carlo simulations to construct confidence intervals for their predictions and are validated by testing their predictions for a set of reference years separate from the set of reference years used to train them. This validation shows that the models are not overfitted but suggests that some of the previous models in the literature may have been. The models developed in this article are able to explain their predictions by showing, for a given prediction, which predictors were the most influential and by using counterfactuals to show how the predictions would have been altered had these predictors taken different values. These models are compared to models created by lasso regression and it is shown that they have at least as good predictive power but that their predictions can be more readily explained. Because policy makers are more likely to be influenced by models whose predictions can explained, the more interpretable a model is the more likely it is to influence policy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abhishek Lenka ◽  
Joseph Jankovic

Tremor is the most commonly encountered movement disorder in clinical practice. A wide range of pathologies may manifest with tremor either as a presenting or predominant symptom. Considering the marked etiological and phenomenological heterogeneity, it would be desirable to develop a classification of tremors that reflects their underlying pathophysiology. The tremor task force of the International Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders Society has worked toward this goal and proposed a new classification system. This system has remained a prime topic of scientific communications on tremor in recent times. The new classification is based on two axes: 1. based on the clinical features, history, and tremor characteristics and 2. based on the etiology of tremor. In this article, we discuss the key aspects of the new classification, review various tremor syndromes, highlight some of the controversies in the field of tremor, and share the potential future perspectives.


2021 ◽  
pp. 036168432110309
Author(s):  
Mary M. Brabeck

Open science advocates argue that making data sets, studies, methodologies, and other aspects of research free from publication fees and available to scholars will increase collaborations, access, and dissemination of knowledge. In this article, I argue that open access policies and practices raise both feminist and ethical issues. I reflect on the five themes of feminist ethics identified 20 years ago by a task force of the Society for the Psychology of Women. I update the themes with recent scholarship of feminist philosophers and ethicists, and I use the themes to raise questions about the promises and challenges of open access. Throughout, I offer suggestions for all who seek to make knowledge of human psychology more complete and more accessible to more people. I conclude by offering recommendations informed by feminist ethics to those building the policies and practices of open access.


Author(s):  
Carsten Oliver Schmidt ◽  
Juliane Fluck ◽  
Martin Golebiewski ◽  
Linus Grabenhenrich ◽  
Horst Hahn ◽  
...  

ZusammenfassungPublic-Health-Forschung, epidemiologische und klinische Studien sind erforderlich, um die COVID-19-Pandemie besser zu verstehen und geeignete Maßnahmen zu ergreifen. Daher wurden auch in Deutschland zahlreiche Forschungsprojekte initiiert. Zum heutigen Zeitpunkt ist es ob der Fülle an Informationen jedoch kaum noch möglich, einen Überblick über die vielfältigen Forschungsaktivitäten und deren Ergebnisse zu erhalten. Im Rahmen der Initiative „Nationale Forschungsdateninfrastruktur für personenbezogene Gesundheitsdaten“ (NFDI4Health) schafft die „Task Force COVID-19“ einen leichteren Zugang zu SARS-CoV-2- und COVID-19-bezogenen klinischen, epidemiologischen und Public-Health-Forschungsdaten. Dabei werden die sogenannten FAIR-Prinzipien (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) berücksichtigt, die eine schnellere Kommunikation von Ergebnissen befördern sollen. Zu den wesentlichen Arbeitsinhalten der Taskforce gehören die Erstellung eines Studienportals mit Metadaten, Erhebungsinstrumenten, Studiendokumenten, Studienergebnissen und Veröffentlichungen sowie einer Suchmaschine für Preprint-Publikationen. Weitere Inhalte sind ein Konzept zur Verknüpfung von Forschungs- und Routinedaten, Services zum verbesserten Umgang mit Bilddaten und die Anwendung standardisierter Analyseroutinen für harmonisierte Qualitätsbewertungen. Die im Aufbau befindliche Infrastruktur erleichtert die Auffindbarkeit von und den Umgang mit deutscher COVID-19-Forschung. Die im Rahmen der NFDI4Health Task Force COVID-19 begonnenen Entwicklungen sind für weitere Forschungsthemen nachnutzbar, da die adressierten Herausforderungen generisch für die Auffindbarkeit von und den Umgang mit Forschungsdaten sind.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel J Dire ◽  
Robert E Suter ◽  
Joe D Robinson ◽  
W Scott Lynn

ABSTRACT This article describes how the U.S. Army developed a new ad hoc medical formation, named Urban Augmentation Medical Task Force for the Department of Defense (DoD) in response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic in the Continental United States during the spring of 2020. We review the role of the DoD support of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as a part of Defense Support of Civilian Authorities.


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