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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fengming Ding ◽  
Lei Han ◽  
Qiang Fu ◽  
Xinxin Fan ◽  
Rong Tang ◽  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection increases risks of exacerbations and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to elucidate the role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis. We examined the expression and influences of IL-23/IL-17A in patients with stable COPD (n = 33) or acute COPD exacerbations with P. aeruginosa infection (n = 34). A mouse model of COPD (C57BL/6) was used to investigate the role of IL-17A in host inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection through the application of IL-17A–neutralizing antibody or recombinant IL-17A. We found that P. aeruginosa infection increased IL-23/17A signaling in lungs of both COPD patients and COPD mouse models. When COPD mouse models were treated with neutralizing antibody targeting IL-17A, P. aeruginosa induced a significantly less polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and less bacterial burden in their lungs compared to those of untreated counterparts. The lung function was also improved by neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, IL-17A-signaling blockade significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, CXCL1, CXCL15 and MMP-9, and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and IL-1Ra. The application of mouse recombinant IL-17A exacerbated P. aeruginosa-mediated inflammatory responses and pulmonary dysfunction in COPD mouse models. A cytokine protein array revealed that the expression of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was down-regulated by IL-17A, and exogenous RBP4-recombinant protein resulted in a decrease in the severity of P. aeruginosa-induced airway dysfunction. Concurrent application of IL-17A-neutralizing antibody and ciprofloxacin attenuated airway inflammation and ventilation after inoculation of P. aeruginosa in COPD mouse models. Our results revealed that IL-17 plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa airway infection during acute exacerbations of COPD. Targeting IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy in controlling the outcomes of P. aeruginosa infection in COPD patients.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Hong Guo-Parke ◽  
Dermot Linden ◽  
Sinéad Weldon ◽  
Joseph C. Kidney ◽  
Clifford C. Taggart

COPD is a chronic lung disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible airflow obstruction, and persistent pulmonary inflammation. It has become a global epidemic affecting 10% of the population, and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Respiratory viruses are a primary cause of COPD exacerbations, often leading to secondary bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. COPD patients are more susceptible to viral infections and associated severe disease, leading to accelerated lung function deterioration, hospitalization, and an increased risk of mortality. The airway epithelium plays an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis, and orchestrates the innate and adaptive responses of the lung against inhaled and pathogen insults. A healthy airway epithelium acts as the first line of host defense by maintaining barrier integrity and the mucociliary escalator, secreting an array of inflammatory mediators, and initiating an antiviral state through the interferon (IFN) response. The airway epithelium is a major site of viral infection, and the interaction between respiratory viruses and airway epithelial cells activates host defense mechanisms, resulting in rapid virus clearance. As such, the production of IFNs and the activation of IFN signaling cascades directly contributes to host defense against viral infections and subsequent innate and adaptive immunity. However, the COPD airway epithelium exhibits an altered antiviral response, leading to enhanced susceptibility to severe disease and impaired IFN signaling. Despite decades of research, there is no effective antiviral therapy for COPD patients. Herein, we review current insights into understanding the mechanisms of viral evasion and host IFN antiviral defense signaling impairment in COPD airway epithelium. Understanding how antiviral mechanisms operate in COPD exacerbations will facilitate the discovery of potential therapeutic interventions to reduce COPD hospitalization and disease severity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Sheng-Han Tsai ◽  
Chia-Yin Shih ◽  
Chin-Wei Kuo ◽  
Xin-Min Liao ◽  
Peng-Chan Lin ◽  

AbstractThe primary barrier to initiating palliative care for advanced COPD patients is the unpredictable course of the disease. We enroll 752 COPD patients into the study and validate the prediction tools for 1-year mortality using the current guidelines for palliative care. We also develop a composite prediction index for 1-year mortality and validate it in another cohort of 342 patients. Using the current prognostic models for recent mortality in palliative care, the best area under the curve (AUC) for predicting mortality is 0.68. Using the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score and oxygen saturation to define the combined dyspnea and oxygenation (DO) index, we find that the AUC of the DO index is 0.84 for predicting mortality in the validated cohort. Predictions of 1-year mortality based on the current palliative care guideline for COPD patients are poor. The DO index exhibits better predictive ability than other models in the study.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003880
Si-Yeung Yu ◽  
Mary Sau-Man Ip ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Ka-Shing Cheung ◽  
Qing-Wen Ren ◽  

Background Evidence suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a higher risk of lung carcinoma. Using a territory-wide clinical electronic medical records system, we investigated the association between low-dose aspirin use (≤160 mg) among patients with COPD and incidence of lung carcinoma and the corresponding risk of bleeding. Methods and findings This is a retrospective cohort study conducted utilizing Clinical Data Analysis Reporting System (CDARS), a territory-wide database developed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance baseline covariates between aspirin nonusers (35,049 patients) with new aspirin users (7,679 patients) among all eligible COPD patients from 2005 to 2018 attending any public hospitals. The median age of the cohort was 75.7 years (SD = 11.5), and 80.3% were male. Competing risk regression with Cox proportional hazards model were performed to estimate the subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) of lung carcinoma with low-dose aspirin and the associated bleeding events. Of all eligible patients, 1,779 (4.2%, 1,526 and 253 among nonusers and users) were diagnosed with lung carcinoma over a median follow-up period of 2.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.4 to 4.8). Aspirin use was associated with a 25% lower risk of lung carcinoma (SHR = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65 to 0.87, p = <0.001) and 26% decrease in lung carcinoma–related mortality (SHR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.86, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that aspirin was beneficial for patients aged above or below 75 years, but was also beneficial among populations who were male, nondiabetic, and nonhypertensive. Aspirin use was not associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (SHR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.53, p = 0.16), but was associated with an increased risk of hemoptysis (SHR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.73 to 2.23, p < 0.001). The main limitations of the study were (i) that one group of patients may be more likely to seek additional medical attention, although this was partially mitigated by the use of propensity score analysis; and (ii) the observational nature of the study renders it unable to establish causality between aspirin use and lung carcinoma incidence. Conclusions In this study, we observed that low-dose aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of lung carcinoma and lung carcinoma–related mortality among COPD patients. While aspirin was not associated with an increased risk of UGIB, the risk of hemoptysis was elevated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nikolaos Koulouris ◽  
Katerina Dimakou ◽  
Konstantinos Gourgoulianis ◽  
Nikolaos Tzanakis ◽  
Aggeliki Rapti ◽  

AbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide accompanied by a substantial social and economic burden for the patient and the society. Poor sleep quality among COPD patients is frequently unnoticed and unaddressed by physicians and patients themselves, although it is a major source of further deterioration of these patients’ quality of life. The aim of the present study was to record the quality of sleep in COPD patients among the Greek population and correlate these findings with various features of these patients, using the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale (CASIS). This was a cross-sectional observational study. Forty different variables (demographics, vital sign measurements, COPD-related medical history parameters, comorbidities, CASIS questionnaire results, COPD assessment test, COPD severity based on spirometry measurements, COPD stage based on the ABCD assessment approach, inhaled COPD treatment report) were collected from 3454 nation-wide COPD patients (Greece). The study sample consisted of COPD patients, mainly male (73%) with a median age of 69 years and a median BMI of 27.2. More than half of COPD patients (60.6%) suffered from moderate disease severity and 23.8% from severe disease, while less than half (42.1%) suffered from at least one exacerbation of the disease over the last year prior study enrollment. About 14% reported frequent to very frequent issues affecting their sleep quality, between a fourth and a third of them reported occasional night sleep disturbances, and at least half of them reported no or very infrequent problems in their night sleep. Our study indicates that the COPD assessment test (CAT) and the spirometry-based disease severity can predict the poorness in the quality of sleep (F2,3451 = 1397.5, p < 0.001, adj. R2 = 0.45) as assessed by CASIS score, and that the latter also correlates with age (ρ = 0.122, p < 0.001) and disease duration (ρ = 0.104, p < 0.001). On the contrary, there appears to be no correlation between sleep quality and number of exacerbations. Finally, untreated patients with COPD suffer from poorer quality of sleep compared to treated subjects, independently of the use of inhaled corticosteroids (F2,3451 = 21.65, p < 0.001). The results of the SLEPICO study show that increased age, prolonged disease duration, and especially CAT score ≥ 10, and severe COPD stage, might act as important indicators for deterioration in the quality of sleep, with potential consequences in the daily routine of those patients, thus urging potentially for further pharmacological interventions or modifications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Juan Miguel Sánchez-Nieto ◽  
Roberto Bernabeu-Mora ◽  
Irene Fernández-Muñoz ◽  
Andrés Carrillo-Alcaraz ◽  
Juan Alcántara-Fructuoso ◽  

AbstractTo analyze whether there is improvement in adherence to inhaled treatment in patients with COPD and asthma after an educational intervention based on the teach-to-goal method. This is a prospective, non-randomized, single-group study, with intervention and before-after evaluation. The study population included 120 patients (67 females and 53 males) diagnosed with asthma (70.8%) and COPD (29.1%). The level of adherence (low and optimal) and the noncompliance behavior pattern (erratic, deliberate and unwitting) were determined by the Test of the adherence to Inhalers (TAI). This questionnaire allows you to determine the level of adherence and the types of noncompliance. Low Adherence (LowAd) was defined as a score less than 49 points. All patients received individualized educational inhaler technique intervention (IEITI). Before the IEITI, 67.5% of the patients had LowAd. Following IEITI, on week 24, LowAd was 55% (p = 0.024). Each patient can present one or more types of noncompliance. The most frequent type was forgetting to use the inhaler (erratic), 65.8%. The other types were deliberate: 43.3%, and unwitting: 57.5%. All of them had decreased on the final visit: 51.7% (p = 0.009), 25.8% (p = 0.002), 39.2% (p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in adherence between asthma and COPD patients at the start of the study. The only predicting factor of LowAd was the female gender. An individualized educational intervention, in ambulatory patients with COPD and asthma, in real-world clinical practice conditions, improves adherence to the inhaled treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 46-56
Marc Spielmanns ◽  
Sebastian Schildge ◽  
Jens Peter Diedrich ◽  
Arschang Valipour

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often reduced by high symptom burden and frequent exacerbations. So far, data on therapeutic success in Swiss COPD patients receiving dual bronchodilation therapy as COPD maintenance treatment are limited. Data from a recently published, non-interventional study on clinical benefit after the start of combined tiotropium–olodaterol treatment were analyzed focusing on Swiss patients compared to the overall cohort including patients from various European countries. Demographic data on the changes in Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) for the assessment of HRQoL in correlation to symptoms and the number of exacerbations, as well as physician’s global assessment (PGE), were evaluated 6 weeks after treatment start. In Switzerland (n = 61), significantly more patients had comorbidities and exacerbations but showed less symptoms compared to the overall cohort (n = 4639). HRQoL improved in both cohorts, with a negative correlation to symptom burden and number of exacerbations in the overall cohort. PGE scores improved after 6 weeks with a better general condition at baseline in Swiss patients (PGE score 4/5: 68.9% [Swiss cohort] vs. 49.0% [overall cohort]. Despite significant differences regarding the presence of symptoms and exacerbations, therapeutic success was similar in both patient groups. Highly symptomatic patients benefited mostly from tiotropium–olodaterol treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Yiya Gu ◽  
Jinkun Chen ◽  
Qian Huang ◽  
Yuan Zhan ◽  
Ting Wang ◽  

Extensive inflammation and apoptosis in structural cells of the lung are responsible for the progression and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Myotubularin-related protein 14 (MTMR14) has been shown to participate in various biological processes, including apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy. Nonetheless, the role of MTMR14 in COPD remains elusive. In the present study, we explored the expression of MTMR14 in human lung tissues and investigated the effects of overexpressed MTMR14 on in vitro and in vivo COPD models. Moreover, one of the possible mechanisms of MTMR14 alleviating COPD was explored based on mitochondrial function and mitophagy homeostasis. The results showed that MTMR14 expression was reduced in COPD patients’ lungs in comparison to control subjects. MTMR14 overexpression inhibited cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammation and apoptosis and improved mitochondrial function and mitophagy in vitro. Further verification was carried out in COPD model mice. MTMR14 overexpression inhibited lung inflammation and reduced levels of IL-6 and KC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as prevented emphysema and a decline in lung function. Furthermore, MTMR14 overexpression improved mitochondrial function and mitophagy to a certain extent. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that MTMR14 participates in the pathogenesis of COPD. Improving mitochondrial function and mitophagy homeostasis may be one of the mechanisms by which MTMR14 alleviates COPD and may potentially be a novel therapeutic target for COPD.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262238
Narongkorn Saiphoklang ◽  
Apiwat Pugongchai ◽  
Kanyada Leelasittikul

Background A 30-m walkway length for the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is the standard recommendation established by the American Thoracic Society to assess patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to compare between the distances of 20 and 30 m long corridor affecting 6MWT in COPD patients. Methods A randomized crossover study was conducted with patients. COPD patients were randomized 1:1 to either a 20-m or a 30-m walkway in the first test, then switched to the other in the second test. Physiologic parameters and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) were recorded. Results Fifty subjects (92% men) were included: age 69.1±7.4 years, body mass index 22.9±5.5 kg/m2, FEV1 63.0±21.3%, and 50% having cardiovascular disease. The 6MWD in a 20-m and a 30-m walkway were 337.82±71.80 m and 359.85±77.25 m, respectively (P<0.001). Mean distance difference was 22.03 m (95% CI -28.29 to -15.76, P<0.001). Patients with a 20-m walkway had more turns than those with a 30-m walkway (mean difference of 4.88 turns, 95% CI 4.48 to 5.28, P<0.001). Also, higher systolic blood pressure was found in patients with a 20-m walkway after 6MWT (4.62 mmHg, P = 0.019). Other parameters and Borg dyspnea scale did not differ. Conclusions The walkway length had significant effect on walking distance in COPD patients. A 30-m walkway length should still be recommended in 6MWT for COPD assessment. Clinical trial registration number: TCTR20200206003.

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