This article deals with the analysis of free vibration of an axially moving truncated conical shell. Based on the classical linear theory of elasticity, Donnell shell theory assumptions, Hamilton principle, and Galerkin method, the motion equations of axially moving truncated conical shells are derived. Then, the perturbation method is used to obtain the natural frequency of the system. One of the most important and controversial results in studies of axially moving structures is the velocity detection of critical points. Therefore, the effect of velocity on the creation of divergence instability is investigated. The other important goal in this study is to investigate the effect of the cone angle. As a novelty, our study found that increasing or decreasing the cone angle also affects the critical velocity of the structure in addition to changing the natural frequency, meaning that with increasing the cone angle, the instability occurs at a lower velocity. Also, the effect of other parameters such as aspect ratio and mechanical properties on the frequency and instability points is investigated.
Two types of non-holonomic constraints (imposing a prescription on velocity) are analyzed, connected to an end of a (visco)elastic rod, straight in its undeformed configuration. The equations governing the nonlinear dynamics are obtained and then linearized near the trivial equilibrium configuration. The two constraints are shown to lead to the same equations governing the linearized dynamics of the Beck (or Pflüger) column in one case and of the Reut column in the other. Although the structural systems are fully conservative (when viscosity is set to zero), they exhibit flutter and divergence instability. In addition, the Ziegler's destabilization paradox is found when dissipation sources are introduced. It follows that these features are proven to be not only a consequence of “unrealistic non-conservative loads” (as often stated in the literature); rather, the models proposed by Beck, Reut, and Ziegler can exactly describe the linearized dynamics of structures subject to non-holonomic constraints, which are made now fully accessible to experiments.
The stability of a cantilevered elastic sheet in a uniform flow has been studied extensively due to its importance in engineering and its prevalence in natural structures. Varying the flow speed can give rise to a range of dynamics including limit cycle behaviour and chaotic motion of the cantilevered sheet. Recently, the ‘inverted flag’ configuration – a cantilevered elastic sheet aligned with the flow impinging on its free edge – has been observed to produce large-amplitude flapping over a finite band of flow speeds. This flapping phenomenon has been found to be a vortex-induced vibration, and only occurs at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. In all cases studied, the inverted flag has been formed from a cantilevered sheet of rectangular morphology, i.e. the planform of its elastic sheet is a rectangle. Here, we investigate the effect of the inverted flag’s morphology on its resulting stability and dynamics. We choose a trapezoidal planform which is explored using experiment and an analytical theory for the divergence instability of an inverted flag of arbitrary morphology. Strikingly, for this planform we observe that the flow speed range over which flapping occurs scales approximately with the flow speed at which the divergence instability occurs. This provides a means by which to predict and control flapping. In a biological setting, leaves in a wind can also align themselves in an inverted flag configuration. Motivated by this natural occurrence we also study the effect of adding an artificial ‘petiole’ (a thin elastic stalk that connects the sheet to the clamp) on the inverted flag’s dynamics. We find that the petiole serves to partially decouple fluid forces from elastic forces, for which an analytical theory is also derived, in addition to increasing the freedom by which the flapping dynamics can be tuned. These results highlight the intricacies of the flapping instability and account for some of the varied dynamics of leaves in nature.
Moving nanosystems often rest on a medium exhibiting viscoelastic behavior in engineering applications. The moving velocity and viscoelastic parameters of the medium usually have an interacting impact on the mechanical properties of nanostructures. This paper investigates the dynamic stability of an axially-moving nanoplate resting on a viscoelastic foundation based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. Firstly, the governing partial equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are derived through utilizing the Hamilton’s principle with the axial velocity, viscoelastic foundation, nonlocal effect and biaxial loadings taken into consideration. Subsequently, the characteristic equation describing the dynamic characteristics is obtained by employing the Galerkin strip distributed transfer function method. Then, complex frequency curves for the nanoplate are displayed graphically and the effects of viscoelastic foundation parameters, small-scale parameters and axial forces on divergence instability and coupled-mode flutter are analyzed, which show that these parameters play a crucial role in affecting nanostructural instability. The presented results benefit the designation of axially-moving graphene nanosheets or other plate-like nanostructures resting on a viscoelastic foundation.