biological networks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-53
Aditya Bharadwaj ◽  
David Gwizdala ◽  
Yoonjin Kim ◽  
Kurt Luther ◽  
T. M. Murali

Modern experiments in many disciplines generate large quantities of network (graph) data. Researchers require aesthetic layouts of these networks that clearly convey the domain knowledge and meaning. However, the problem remains challenging due to multiple conflicting aesthetic criteria and complex domain-specific constraints. In this article, we present a strategy for generating visualizations that can help network biologists understand the protein interactions that underlie processes that take place in the cell. Specifically, we have developed Flud, a crowd-powered system that allows humans with no expertise to design biologically meaningful graph layouts with the help of algorithmically generated suggestions. Furthermore, we propose a novel hybrid approach for graph layout wherein crowd workers and a simulated annealing algorithm build on each other’s progress. A study of about 2,000 crowd workers on Amazon Mechanical Turk showed that the hybrid crowd–algorithm approach outperforms the crowd-only approach and state-of-the-art techniques when workers were asked to lay out complex networks that represent signaling pathways. Another study of seven participants with biological training showed that Flud layouts are more effective compared to those created by state-of-the-art techniques. We also found that the algorithmically generated suggestions guided the workers when they are stuck and helped them improve their score. Finally, we discuss broader implications for mixed-initiative interactions in layout design tasks beyond biology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Satyaki Roy ◽  
Preetam Ghosh ◽  
Nirnay Ghosh ◽  
Sajal K. Das

The advent of the edge computing network paradigm places the computational and storage resources away from the data centers and closer to the edge of the network largely comprising the heterogeneous IoT devices collecting huge volumes of data. This paradigm has led to considerable improvement in network latency and bandwidth usage over the traditional cloud-centric paradigm. However, the next generation networks continue to be stymied by their inability to achieve adaptive, energy-efficient, timely data transfer in a dynamic and failure-prone environment—the very optimization challenges that are dealt with by biological networks as a consequence of millions of years of evolution. The transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) is a biological network whose innate topological robustness is a function of its underlying graph topology. In this article, we survey these properties of TRN and the metrics derived therefrom that lend themselves to the design of smart networking protocols and architectures. We then review a body of literature on bio-inspired networking solutions that leverage the stated properties of TRN. Finally, we present a vision for specific aspects of TRNs that may inspire future research directions in the fields of large-scale social and communication networks.

2022 ◽  
Pradyumna Harlapur ◽  
Atchuta Srinivas Duddu ◽  
Kishore Hari ◽  
Mohit Kumar Jolly

Elucidating the design principles of regulatory networks driving cellular decision-making has important implications in understanding cell differentiation and guiding the design of synthetic circuits. Mutually repressing feedback loops between 'master regulators' of cell-fates can exhibit multistable dynamics, thus enabling multiple 'single-positive' phenotypes: (high A, low B) and (low A, high B) for a toggle switch, and (high A, low B, low C), (low A, high B, low C) and (low A, low B, high C) for a toggle triad. However, the dynamics of these two network motifs has been interrogated in isolation in silico, but in vitro and in vivo, they often operate while embedded in larger regulatory networks. Here, we embed these network motifs in complex larger networks of varying sizes and connectivity and identify conditions under which these motifs maintain their canonical dynamical behavior, thus identifying hallmarks of their functional resilience. We show that the in-degree of a motif - defined as the number of incoming edges onto a motif - determines its functional properties. For a smaller in-degree, the functional traits for both these motifs (bimodality, pairwise correlation coefficient(s), and the frequency of 'single-positive' phenotypes) are largely conserved, but increasing the in-degree can lead to a divergence from their stand-alone behaviors. These observations offer insights into design principles of biological networks containing these network motifs, as well as help devise optimal strategies for integration of these motifs into larger synthetic networks.

2022 ◽  
Xuan Yan ◽  
Niccolo Calcini ◽  
Payam Safavi ◽  
Asli Ak ◽  
Koen Kole ◽  

Background: The recent release of two large intracellular electrophysiological databases now allows high-dimensional systematic analysis of mechanisms of information processing in the neocortex. Here, to complement these efforts, we introduce a freely and publicly available database that provides a comparative insight into the role of various neuromodulatory transmitters in controlling neural information processing. Findings: A database of in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from primary somatosensory and motor cortices (layers 2/3) of the adult mice (2-15 months old) from both sexes is introduced. A total of 464 current-clamp experiments from identified excitatory and inhibitory neurons are provided. Experiments include recordings with (i) Step-and-Hold protocol during which the current was transiently held at 10 steps, gradually increasing in amplitude, (ii) 'Frozen Noise' injections that model the amplitude and time-varying nature of synaptic inputs to a neuron in biological networks. All experiments follow a within neuron across drug design which includes a vehicle control and a modulation of one of the following targets in the same neuron: dopamine and its receptors D1R, D2R, serotonin 5HT1f receptor, norepinephrine Alpha1, and acetylcholine M1 receptors. Conclusions: This dataset is the first to provide a systematic and comparative insight into the role of the selected neuromodulators in controlling cellular excitability. The data will help to mechanistically address how bottom-up information processing can be modulated, providing a reference for studying neural coding characteristics and revealing the contribution of neuromodulation to information processing.  

Lionel Alangeh Ngobesing ◽  
Yılmaz Atay

Abstract: In network science and big data, the concept of finding meaningful infrastructures in networks has emerged as a method of finding groups of entities with similar properties within very complex systems. The whole concept is generally based on finding subnetworks which have more properties (links) amongst nodes belonging to the same cluster than nodes in other groups (A concept presented by Girvan and Newman, 2002). Today meaningful infrastructure identification is applied in all types of networks from computer networks, to social networks to biological networks. In this article we will look at how meaningful infrastructure identification is applied in biological networks. This concept is important in biological networks as it helps scientist discover patterns in proteins or drugs which helps in solving many medical mysteries. This article will encompass the different algorithms that are used for meaningful infrastructure identification in biological networks. These include Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution, Water Cycle Algorithm (WCA), Walktrap Algorithm, Connect Intensity Iteration Algorithm (CIIA), Firefly algorithms and Overlapping Multiple Label Propagation Algorithm. These al-gorithms are compared with using performance measurement parameters such as the Mod-ularity, Normalized Mutual Information, Functional Enrichment, Recall and Precision, Re-dundancy, Purity and Surprise, which we will also discuss here.

2022 ◽  
Matthew Bailey ◽  
Mark Wilson

One of the critical tools of persistent homology is the persistence diagram. We demonstrate the applicability of a persistence diagram showing the existence of topological features (here rings in a 2D network) generated over time instead of space as a tool to analyse trajectories of biological networks. We show how the time persistence diagram is useful in order to identify critical phenomena such as rupturing and to visualise important features in 2D biological networks; they are particularly useful to highlight patterns of damage and to identify if particular patterns are significant or ephemeral. Persistence diagrams are also used to analyse repair phenomena, and we explore how the measured properties of a dynamical phenomenon change according to the sampling frequency. This shows that the persistence diagrams are robust and still provide useful information even for data of low temporal resolution. Finally, we combine persistence diagrams across many trajectories to show how the technique highlights the existence of sharp transitions at critical points in the rupturing process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Giacomo Rapisardi ◽  
Ivan Kryven ◽  
Alex Arenas

AbstractPercolation is a process that impairs network connectedness by deactivating links or nodes. This process features a phase transition that resembles paradigmatic critical transitions in epidemic spreading, biological networks, traffic and transportation systems. Some biological systems, such as networks of neural cells, actively respond to percolation-like damage, which enables these structures to maintain their function after degradation and aging. Here we study percolation in networks that actively respond to link damage by adopting a mechanism resembling synaptic scaling in neurons. We explain critical transitions in such active networks and show that these structures are more resilient to damage as they are able to maintain a stronger connectedness and ability to spread information. Moreover, we uncover the role of local rescaling strategies in biological networks and indicate a possibility of designing smart infrastructures with improved robustness to perturbations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Alessandro Muscolino ◽  
Antonio Di Maria ◽  
Rosaria Valentina Rapicavoli ◽  
Salvatore Alaimo ◽  
Lorenzo Bellomo ◽  

Abstract Background The rapidly increasing biological literature is a key resource to automatically extract and gain knowledge concerning biological elements and their relations. Knowledge Networks are helpful tools in the context of biological knowledge discovery and modeling. Results We introduce a novel system called NETME, which, starting from a set of full-texts obtained from PubMed, through an easy-to-use web interface, interactively extracts biological elements from ontological databases and then synthesizes a network inferring relations among such elements. The results clearly show that our tool is capable of inferring comprehensive and reliable biological networks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Tatsuya Akutsu ◽  
Hongmin Cai

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