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Published By Springer Nature

2041-1723
Updated Sunday, 17 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Li-Ping Chi ◽  
Zhuang-Zhuang Niu ◽  
Xiao-Long Zhang ◽  
Peng-Peng Yang ◽  
Jie Liao ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alma Andersson ◽  
Ludvig Larsson ◽  
Linnea Stenbeck ◽  
Fredrik Salmén ◽  
Anna Ehinger ◽  
...  

AbstractIn the past decades, transcriptomic studies have revolutionized cancer treatment and diagnosis. However, tumor sequencing strategies typically result in loss of spatial information, critical to understand cell interactions and their functional relevance. To address this, we investigate spatial gene expression in HER2-positive breast tumors using Spatial Transcriptomics technology. We show that expression-based clustering enables data-driven tumor annotation and assessment of intra- and interpatient heterogeneity; from which we discover shared gene signatures for immune and tumor processes. By integration with single cell data, we spatially map tumor-associated cell types to find tertiary lymphoid-like structures, and a type I interferon response overlapping with regions of T-cell and macrophage subset colocalization. We construct a predictive model to infer presence of tertiary lymphoid-like structures, applicable across tissue types and technical platforms. Taken together, we combine different data modalities to define a high resolution map of cellular interactions in tumors and provide tools generalizing across tissues and diseases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jens Grauer ◽  
Falko Schmidt ◽  
Jesús Pineda ◽  
Benjamin Midtvedt ◽  
Hartmut Löwen ◽  
...  

AbstractActive matter comprises self-driven units, such as bacteria and synthetic microswimmers, that can spontaneously form complex patterns and assemble into functional microdevices. These processes are possible thanks to the out-of-equilibrium nature of active-matter systems, fueled by a one-way free-energy flow from the environment into the system. Here, we take the next step in the evolution of active matter by realizing a two-way coupling between active particles and their environment, where active particles act back on the environment giving rise to the formation of superstructures. In experiments and simulations we observe that, under light-illumination, colloidal particles and their near-critical environment create mutually-coupled co-evolving structures. These structures unify in the form of active superstructures featuring a droplet shape and a colloidal engine inducing self-propulsion. We call them active droploids—a portmanteau of droplet and colloids. Our results provide a pathway to create active superstructures through environmental feedback.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shailabh Kumar ◽  
Felix J. H. Hol ◽  
Sujit Pujhari ◽  
Clayton Ellington ◽  
Haripriya Vaidehi Narayanan ◽  
...  

AbstractMosquito bites transmit a number of pathogens via salivary droplets deposited during blood-feeding, resulting in potentially fatal diseases. Little is known about the genomic content of these nanodroplets, including the transmission dynamics of live pathogens. Here we introduce Vectorchip, a low-cost, scalable microfluidic platform enabling high-throughput molecular interrogation of individual mosquito bites. We introduce an ultra-thin PDMS membrane which acts as a biting interface to arrays of micro-wells. Freely-behaving mosquitoes deposit saliva droplets by biting into these micro-wells. By modulating membrane thickness, we observe species-dependent differences in mosquito biting capacity, utilizable for selective sample collection. We demonstrate RT-PCR and focus-forming assays on-chip to detect mosquito DNA, Zika virus RNA, as well as quantify infectious Mayaro virus particles transmitted from single mosquito bites. The Vectorchip presents a promising approach for single-bite-resolution laboratory and field characterization of vector-pathogen communities, and could serve as a powerful early warning sentinel for mosquito-borne diseases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hong-Yan Li ◽  
Rui-Peng Zhao ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Yoshihiko Tamura ◽  
Christopher Spencer ◽  
...  

AbstractHow serpentinites in the forearc mantle and subducted lithosphere become involved in enriching the subarc mantle source of arc magmas is controversial. Here we report molybdenum isotopes for primitive submarine lavas and serpentinites from active volcanoes and serpentinite mud volcanoes in the Mariana arc. These data, in combination with radiogenic isotopes and elemental ratios, allow development of a model whereby shallow, partially serpentinized and subducted forearc mantle transfers fluid and melt from the subducted slab into the subarc mantle. These entrained forearc mantle fragments are further metasomatized by slab fluids/melts derived from the dehydration of serpentinites in the subducted lithospheric slab. Multistage breakdown of serpentinites in the subduction channel ultimately releases fluids/melts that trigger Mariana volcanic front volcanism. Serpentinites dragged down from the forearc mantle are likely exhausted at >200 km depth, after which slab-derived serpentinites are responsible for generating slab melts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dayana E. Salas-Leiva ◽  
Eelco C. Tromer ◽  
Bruce A. Curtis ◽  
Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist ◽  
Martin Kolisko ◽  
...  

AbstractCells replicate and segregate their DNA with precision. Previous studies showed that these regulated cell-cycle processes were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and that their core molecular parts are conserved across eukaryotes. However, some metamonad parasites have secondarily lost components of the DNA processing and segregation apparatuses. To clarify the evolutionary history of these systems in these unusual eukaryotes, we generated a genome assembly for the free-living metamonad Carpediemonas membranifera and carried out a comparative genomics analysis. Here, we show that parasitic and free-living metamonads harbor an incomplete set of proteins for processing and segregating DNA. Unexpectedly, Carpediemonas species are further streamlined, lacking the origin recognition complex, Cdc6 and most structural kinetochore subunits. Carpediemonas species are thus the first known eukaryotes that appear to lack this suite of conserved complexes, suggesting that they likely rely on yet-to-be-discovered or alternative mechanisms to carry out these fundamental processes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yongming Liu ◽  
Gengxin Xie ◽  
Qichang Yang ◽  
Maozhi Ren

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Annika Kurzmann ◽  
Yaakov Kleeorin ◽  
Chuyao Tong ◽  
Rebekka Garreis ◽  
Angelika Knothe ◽  
...  

AbstractThe Kondo effect is a cornerstone in the study of strongly correlated fermions. The coherent exchange coupling of conduction electrons to local magnetic moments gives rise to a Kondo cloud that screens the impurity spin. Here we report on the interplay between spin–orbit interaction and the Kondo effect, that can lead to a underscreened Kondo effects in quantum dots in bilayer graphene. More generally, we introduce a different experimental platform for studying Kondo physics. In contrast to carbon nanotubes, where nanotube chirality determines spin–orbit coupling breaking the SU(4) symmetry of the electronic states relevant for the Kondo effect, we study a planar carbon material where a small spin–orbit coupling of nominally flat graphene is enhanced by zero-point out-of-plane phonons. The resulting two-electron triplet ground state in bilayer graphene dots provides a route to exploring the Kondo effect with a small spin–orbit interaction.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rahul K. Suryawanshi ◽  
Chandrashekhar D. Patil ◽  
Alex Agelidis ◽  
Raghuram Koganti ◽  
Joshua M. Ames ◽  
...  

AbstractHerpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes ocular and orofacial infections. In rare cases, HSV-1 can cause encephalitis, which leads to permanent brain injuries, memory loss or even death. Host factors protect humans from viral infections by activating the immune response. However, factors that confer neuroprotection during viral encephalitis are poorly understood. Here we show that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is essential for the survival of experimental animals after ocular HSV-1 infection in vivo. We find the loss of mTORC2 causes systemic HSV-1 infection due to defective innate and adaptive immune responses, and increased ocular and neuronal cell death that turns lethal for the infected mice. Furthermore, we find that mTORC2 mediated cell survival channels through the inactivation of the proapoptotic factor FoxO3a. Our results demonstrate how mTORC2 potentiates host defenses against viral infections and implicate mTORC2 as a necessary factor for survival of the infected host.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthias M. Schneider ◽  
Saurabh Gautam ◽  
Therese W. Herling ◽  
Ewa Andrzejewska ◽  
Georg Krainer ◽  
...  

AbstractMolecular chaperones contribute to the maintenance of cellular protein homoeostasis through assisting de novo protein folding and preventing amyloid formation. Chaperones of the Hsp70 family can further disaggregate otherwise irreversible aggregate species such as α-synuclein fibrils, which accumulate in Parkinson’s disease. However, the mechanisms and kinetics of this key functionality are only partially understood. Here, we combine microfluidic measurements with chemical kinetics to study α-synuclein disaggregation. We show that Hsc70 together with its co-chaperones DnaJB1 and Apg2 can completely reverse α-synuclein aggregation back to its soluble monomeric state. This reaction proceeds through first-order kinetics where monomer units are removed directly from the fibril ends with little contribution from intermediate fibril fragmentation steps. These findings extend our mechanistic understanding of the role of chaperones in the suppression of amyloid proliferation and in aggregate clearance, and inform on possibilities and limitations of this strategy in the development of therapeutics against synucleinopathies.


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