We consider a programming language that can manipulate both classical and quantum information. Our language is type-safe and designed for variational quantum programming, which is a hybrid classical-quantum computational paradigm. The classical subsystem of the language is the Probabilistic FixPoint Calculus (PFPC), which is a lambda calculus with mixed-variance recursive types, term recursion and probabilistic choice. The quantum subsystem is a first-order linear type system that can manipulate quantum information. The two subsystems are related by mixed classical/quantum terms that specify how classical probabilistic effects are induced by quantum measurements, and conversely, how classical (probabilistic) programs can influence the quantum dynamics. We also describe a sound and computationally adequate denotational semantics for the language. Classical probabilistic effects are interpreted using a recently-described commutative probabilistic monad on DCPO. Quantum effects and resources are interpreted in a category of von Neumann algebras that we show is enriched over (continuous) domains. This strong sense of enrichment allows us to develop novel semantic methods that we use to interpret the relationship between the quantum and classical probabilistic effects. By doing so we provide a very detailed denotational analysis that relates domain-theoretic models of classical probabilistic programming to models of quantum programming.
AbstractFinding a Hadamard matrix (H-matrix) among all possible binary matrices of corresponding order is a hard problem that can be solved by a quantum computer. Due to the limitation on the number of qubits and connections in current quantum processors, only low order H-matrix search of orders 2 and 4 were implementable by previous method. In this paper, we show that by adopting classical searching techniques of the H-matrices, we can formulate new quantum computing methods for finding higher order ones. We present some results of finding H-matrices of order up to more than one hundred and a prototypical experiment of the classical-quantum resource balancing method that yields a 92-order H-matrix previously found by Jet Propulsion Laboratory researchers in 1961 using a mainframe computer. Since the exactness of the solutions can be verified by an orthogonality test performed in polynomial time; which is untypical for optimization of hard problems, the proposed method can potentially be used for demonstrating practical quantum supremacy in the near future.
We associate here the relationship between de-coherence to the statistical notion of disequilibrium with regards to the dynamics of a system that reflects the interaction between matter and a given field. The process is described via information geometry. Some of its tools are shown here to appropriately explain the process’ mechanism. In particular we gain some insight into what is the role of the uncertainty principle (UP) in the pertinent proceedings.
Hoare logic provides a syntax-oriented method to reason about program correctness and has been proven effective in the verification of classical and probabilistic programs. Existing proposals for quantum Hoare logic either lack completeness or support only quantum variables, thus limiting their capability in practical use. In this article, we propose a quantum Hoare logic for a simple while language that involves both classical and quantum variables. Its soundness and relative completeness are proven for both partial and total correctness of quantum programs written in the language. Remarkably, with novel definitions of classical-quantum states and corresponding assertions, the logic system is quite simple and similar to the traditional Hoare logic for classical programs. Furthermore, to simplify reasoning in real applications, auxiliary proof rules are provided that support standard logical operation in the classical part of assertions and super-operator application in the quantum part. Finally, a series of practical quantum algorithms, in particular the whole algorithm of Shor’s factorisation, are formally verified to show the effectiveness of the logic.
In the general relativity theory, using Einstein’s gravity field equation, we discover the spherical solution of the classical quantum gravity. The careful point is that this theory is different from the other quantum theory. This theory is made by the Einstein’s classical field equation.
AbstractWe study inflationary dynamics using a recently introduced classical-quantum correspondence for investigating the backreaction of a quantum mechanical degree of freedom to a classical background. Using specifically a coupled Einstein–Klein–Gordon system, an approximation that holds well during the very early inflationary era when modes are very deep inside the Hubble horizon, we show that the backreaction of a mode of the quantum field will renormalize the Hubble parameter only if the mode’s wavelength is longer than some threshold Planckian length scale. Otherwise, the mode will destabilize the inflationary era. We also present an approximate analytical solution that supports the existence of such short-wavelength threshold and compare the results of the classical-quantum correspondence with the traditional perturbative-iterative method in semiclassical gravity.