motion tracking
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Md Rajib M Hasan ◽  
Noor H. S. Alani

Moving or dynamic object analysis continues to be an increasingly active research field in computer vision with many types of research investigating different methods for motion tracking, object recognition, pose estimation, or motion evaluation (e.g. in sports sciences). Many techniques are available to measure the forces and motion of the people, such as force plates to measure ground reaction forces for a jump or running sports. In training and commercial solution, the detailed motion of athlete's available motion capture devices based on optical markers on the athlete's body and multiple calibrated fixed cameras around the sides of the capture volume can be used. In some situations, it is not practical to attach any kind of marker or transducer to the athletes or the existing machinery are being used, while it is required by a pure vision-based approach to use the natural appearance of the person or object. When a sporting event is taking place, there are opportunities for computer vision to help the referee and other personnel involved in the sports to keep track of incidents occurring, which may provide full coverage and analysis in details of the event for sports viewers. The research aims at using computer vision methods, specially designed for monocular recording, for measuring sports activities, such as high jump, wide jump, or running. Just for indicating the complexity of the project: a single camera needs to understand the height at a particular distance using silhouette extraction. Moving object analysis benefits from silhouette extraction and this has been applied to many domains including sports activities. This paper comparatively discusses two significant techniques to extract silhouettes of a moving object (a jumping person) in monocular video data in different scenarios. The results show that the performance of silhouette extraction varies in dependency on the quality of used video data.


Author(s):  
Jaikumar Sankar ◽  
Liu Yang

Abstract This work focuses on investigating the time of sinking of a Saxon bowl proposed by ‘International Young Physicists’ Tournament in 2020. A quasi-static model is built to simulate the motion path of the bowl and predict the sinking time subsequently. The model assumes an open axisymmetric bowl with a hole in its base. The hole is modelled as a pipe for which the flow profile is governed by a modified Bernoulli’s equation which has a Coefficient of Discharge (C_d) added to account for energy losses. The motion of the entire bowl is assumed to be in quasi-static equilibrium for an infinitesimal time interval to calculate the volumetric flow rate through the hole. The model is used to predict the sinking times of various bowls against independent variables - hole radius, bowl dimensions, mass of bowl, mass distribution of bowl, and Coefficient of Discharge - and predict the motion path of bowls of different, axisymmetric geometries. Characterisation of C_d was done by draining a bowl filled with water and measuring the time taken to do so. Experimental verification was completed through measuring sinking times of 3D printed hemispherical bowls of the different variables in water. Motion tracking of bowls with different geometries was done using computational pixel tracking software to verify the model’s predictive power. Data from experiments for sinking time against the variables corroborate with the model to a great degree. The motion path tracked, matched the modelled motion path to a high degree for bowls of different shapes, namely a hemisphere, cylinder, frustum, and a free-form axisymmetric shape. The work is poised for an undergraduate level of readership.


Author(s):  
Rihab Mansour ◽  
Liset Vazquez Romaguera ◽  
Catherine Huet ◽  
Ahmed Bentridi ◽  
Kim-Nhien Vu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (163) ◽  
pp. 210149
Author(s):  
Alessio Casutt ◽  
Rémy Kinj ◽  
Esat-Mahmut Ozsahin ◽  
Christophe von Garnier ◽  
Alban Lovis

Stereotactic body radiation therapy is an alternative to surgery for early-stage, inoperable peripheral non-small cell lung cancer. As opposed to linear accelerator (linac)-based (e.g. gating) and free-breathing techniques, CyberKnife® with Synchrony® technology allows accurate radiation delivery by means of a real-time respiratory motion tracking system using, in most cases, metal fiducial markers (FMs) placed in the vicinity of the target. The aims of this review are as follows. First, to describe the safety and efficacy of the transthoracic, endovascular and endobronchial FM insertion techniques for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Second, to analyse performance in terms of the migration and tracking rates of different FM types. Recent developments in FM tracking for central lesions will also be reviewed. In conclusion, for PPLs, the endobronchial approach provides a low rate of pneumothorax, offers the possibility of concurrent diagnostic sampling for both the PPL and the lymph nodes, and, finally, reduces the intervention time compared to other techniques. In this context, coil-tailed and coil-spring FMs have shown the lowest migration rate with a consequently high tracking rate.


Author(s):  
Shunchao Wang ◽  
Zhibin Li ◽  
Bingtong Wang ◽  
Jingfeng Ma ◽  
Jingcai Yu

This study proposes a novel collision avoidance and motion planning framework for connected and automated vehicles based on an improved velocity obstacle (VO) method. The controller framework consists of two parts, that is, collision avoidance method and motion planning algorithm. The VO algorithm is introduced to deduce the velocity conditions of a vehicle collision. A collision risk potential field (CRPF) is constructed to modify the collision area calculated by the VO algorithm. A vehicle dynamic model is presented to predict vehicle moving states and trajectories. A model predictive control (MPC)-based motion tracking controller is employed to plan collision-avoidance path according to the collision-free principles deduced by the modified VO method. Five simulation scenarios are designed and conducted to demonstrate the control maneuver of the proposed controller framework. The results show that the constructed CRPF can accurately represent the collision risk distribution of the vehicles with different attributes and motion states. The proposed framework can effectively handle the maneuver of obstacle avoidance, lane change, and emergency response. The controller framework also presents good performance to avoid crashes under different levels of collision risk strength.


Author(s):  
Darren R. Hocking ◽  
Adel Ardalan ◽  
Hisham M. Abu-Rayya ◽  
Hassan Farhat ◽  
Anna Andoni ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Motor impairment is widely acknowledged as a core feature in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which can affect adaptive behavior and increase severity of symptoms. Low-cost motion capture and virtual reality (VR) game technologies hold a great deal of promise for providing personalized approaches to motor intervention in ASD. The present study explored the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a custom-designed VR game-based intervention (GaitWayXR™) for improving gross motor skills in youth with ASD. Methods Ten children and adolescents (10–17 years) completed six, 20-min VR-based motor training sessions over 2 weeks while whole-body movement was tracked with a low-cost motion capture system. We developed a methodology for using motion tracking data to quantify whole-body movement in terms of efficiency, synchrony and symmetry. We then studied the relationships of the above quantities with standardized measures of motor skill and cognitive flexibility. Results Our results supported our presumption that the VR intervention is safe, with no adverse events and very few minor to moderate side-effects, while a large proportion of parents said they would use the VR game at home, the most prohibitive reasons for adopting the system for home therapy were cost and space. Although there was little evidence of any benefits of the GaitWayXR™ intervention in improving gross motor skills, we showed several positive correlations between the standardized measures of gross motor skills in ASD and our measures of efficiency, symmetry and synchrony from low-cost motion capture. Conclusions These findings, though preliminary and limited by small sample size, suggest that low-cost motion capture of children with ASD is feasible with movement exercises in a VR-based game environment. Based on these preliminary findings, we recommend conducting larger-scale studies with methods for improving adherence to VR gaming interventions over longer periods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lars Hansen ◽  
Sepp de Raedt ◽  
Peter Bo Jørgensen ◽  
Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen ◽  
Lone Rømer ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Dynamic radiostereometric analysis (dRSA) enables precise non-invasive three-dimensional motion-tracking of bones for assessment of joint kinematics. Hereby, the biomechanical effects of arthroscopic osteochondroplasty of the hip (ACH) can be evaluated in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The aim was to investigate the pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM) and the CT bone volume removed (BV) after ACH. We hypothesize increase in ROM 1 year after surgery. Methods Thirteen patients (6 female) with symptomatic FAI were included prospectively. The patient’s hips were CT-scanned and CT-bone models were created. Preoperative dRSA recordings were acquired during passive flexion to 90°, adduction, and internal rotation (FADIR). ACH was performed, CT and dRSA were repeated 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Hip joint kinematics before, and 3 months and 1 year after ACH were compared pairwise. The bone volume removal was quantified and compared to change in ROM. Results Mean hip internal rotation, adduction and flexion were all unchanged after ACH at 1-year follow-up (p > 0.84). HAGOS scores revealed improvement of quality of life (QOL) from 32 to 60 (p = 0.02). The BV was between 406 and 1783 mm3 and did not correlate to post-operative ROM. Conclusions ACH surgery in FAI patients had no impact of ROM at 1-year follow-up. QOL improved significantly. This indicates that the positive clinical effects reported after ACH might be a result of reduced labral stress and cartilage pressure during end-range motion rather than increased ROM. Level of evidence Therapeutic prospective cohort study, level II.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Federico Gelsomini ◽  
Elena Tomasuolo ◽  
Maria Roccaforte ◽  
Patrick Hung ◽  
Bill Kapralos ◽  
...  

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