Internal Rotation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 880
Yuvaraj Ramasamy ◽  
Viswanath Sundar ◽  
Juliana Usman ◽  
Rizal Razman ◽  
Harley Towler ◽  

Three-dimensional position data of nineteen elite male Malaysian badminton players performing a series of maximal jump smashes were collected using a motion capture system. A ‘resultant moments’ inverse dynamics analysis was performed on the racket arm joints (shoulder, elbow and wrist). Relationships between racket head speed and peak joint moments were quantified using correlational analyses, inclusive of a Benjamini–Hochberg correction for multiple-hypothesis testing. The racket head centre speed at racket–shuttlecock contact was, on average, 61.2 m/s with a peak of 68.5 m/s which equated to average shuttlecock speeds of 95.2 m/s with a peak of 105.0 m/s. The correlational analysis revealed that a larger shoulder internal rotation moment (r = 0.737), backwards shoulder plane of elevation moment (r = 0.614) and wrist extension moment (r = −0.564) were associated with greater racket head centre speed at racket–shuttlecock contact. Coaches should consider strengthening the musculature associated with shoulder internal rotation, plane of elevation and wrist extension. This work provides a unique analysis of the joint moments of the racket arm during the badminton jump smash performed by an elite population and highlights significant relationships between racket head speed and peak resultant joint moments.

2022 ◽  
pp. 036354652110625
Ryan W. Paul ◽  
Scott Sheridan ◽  
Katherine E. Reuther ◽  
John D. Kelly ◽  
Stephen J. Thomas

Background: The relationship between posterior capsule adaptations and soft tissue glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) in healthy pitchers remains unclear. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to identify if posterior capsule thickness (PCT) was associated with soft tissue GIRD in healthy pitchers. We hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between soft tissue GIRD and PCT in the dominant arm, no relationship between soft tissue GIRD and PCT in the nondominant arm, and a strong positive relationship between soft tissue GIRD and the bilateral difference in PCT (posterior capsule hypertrophy [PCH]). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 45 healthy collegiate and professional pitchers were included. Glenohumeral internal rotation and external rotation range of motion, humeral retroversion, and PCT were measured bilaterally. PCT was determined for unilateral posterior capsule measurements, and PCH of the throwing shoulder was calculated as the bilateral difference in PCT. Soft tissue GIRD was calculated as the sum of clinical GIRD and the bilateral difference in humeral retroversion. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined to evaluate the relationships between dominant arm PCT, nondominant arm PCT, and PCH and soft tissue GIRD. Results: Pearson correlations showed that both dominant arm PCT ( R = −0.13; P = .378) and nondominant arm PCT ( R = 0.21; P = .165) were not related to soft tissue GIRD. However, Pearson correlations did show that the amount of PCH was moderately related to soft tissue GIRD ( R = 0.40; P = .007). Therefore, as the posterior capsule hypertrophied, soft tissue GIRD moderately increased. Conclusion: Increased PCH was associated with an increase in soft tissue GIRD in healthy pitchers. If PCT measurements are feasible, clinicians should consider performing bilateral ultrasound assessments to isolate posterior capsule adaptations (ie, PCH). This will allow clinicians to identify pitchers with potentially maladaptive structural adaptations and optimize management strategies throughout the season to counteract them.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Chih-Kai Hong ◽  
Yu-Ju Lin ◽  
Ting-An Cheng ◽  
Chih-Hsun Chang ◽  
Kai-Lan Hsu ◽  

Abstract Purpose To compare the anterior translation and internal rotation of tibia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between adult and adolescent patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Methods Patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction from January 2013 to May 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. The exclusion criteria included incomplete data, poor image quality, a prior ACL surgery, and concomitant fractures or other ligament injuries. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups based on their ages: an adult group (age > 19 years) and an adolescent group (15 to 19 years of age). Anterior tibial translation and femorotibial rotation were measured on MRI. A Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis comparing the adult and adolescent groups. Results A total of 365 patients (279 adults and 86 adolescents) were enrolled in the present study. The anterior tibial translation in the adult group (4.8 ± 4.4 mm) and the adolescent group (5.0 ± 4.2 mm) was not significantly different (p = 0.740). On the other hand, the tibial internal rotation in the adult group (5.6 ± 5.0 degree) was significantly greater compared to the adolescent group (4.2 ± 5.6 degree) (p = 0.030). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the measured data from two independent observers showed excellent reliability (0.964 and 0.961 for anterior tibial translation and tibial internal rotation, respectively). Conclusion The adult patients with ACL tears exhibited significant greater tibial internal rotation compared to the adolescent patients, whereas the magnitude of the anterior tibial translation was similar in both groups. Care should be taken if clinicians plan to establish the cutoff point values for diagnosis of ACL tears using the femorotibial internal rotation angle.

2022 ◽  
pp. 036354652110678
Joseph E. Manzi ◽  
Brittany Dowling ◽  
Zhaorui Wang ◽  
Andrew Luzzi ◽  
Ryan Thacher ◽  

Background: Biomechanical predictors of pitching accuracy are underevaluated in baseball research. It is unclear how pitchers with higher accuracy differ in terms of kinematics and upper extremity kinetics. Purpose: To differentiate high- and low-accuracy professional pitchers by full-body kinematic and upper extremity kinetic parameters. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: In total, 121 professional baseball pitchers threw 8 to 12 fastballs while assessed with motion-capture technology (480 Hz). Pitchers were divided into high-accuracy (n = 33), moderate-accuracy (n = 52), and low-accuracy (n = 36) groups based on the absolute center deviation of each pitcher’s average pitch to the center of the pitching chart by greater or less than 0.5 SD from the mean, respectively. The 95% confidence ellipses with comparisons of major and minor radii and pitching probability density grids were constructed. Analysis of variance was used to compare kinematic and kinetic values between groups. Results: The absolute center deviation (14.5% ± 6.7% vs 33.5% ± 3.7% grid width; P < .001) was significantly lower in the high-accuracy compared with the low-accuracy group, with no significant difference in ball velocity (38.0 ± 1.7 vs 38.5 ± 2.0 m/s; P = .222). Lead knee flexion at ball release (30.6°± 17.8° vs 40.1°± 16.3°; P = .023) was significantly less for the high-accuracy pitchers. Peak normalized shoulder internal rotation torque (5.5% ± 1.0% vs 4.9% ± 0.7% body weight [BW] × body height [BH]; P = .008), normalized elbow varus torque (5.4% ± 1.0% vs 4.8% ± 0.7% BW × BH; P = .008), and normalized elbow medial force (42.9% ± 7.3% vs 38.6% ± 6.2% BW; P = .024) were significantly greater for the low-accuracy group compared with the high-accuracy group. Conclusion: Professional pitchers with increased accuracy experienced decreased throwing arm kinetics. These pitchers had increased lead knee extension at later stages of the pitch, potentially providing more stable engagement with the ground and transference of kinetic energy to the upper extremities. Professional pitchers can consider increasing lead knee extension at the final stages of the pitch to improve the accuracy of their throws and mitigate elbow varus torque. Clinical Relevance: Increased elbow varus torque, shoulder internal rotation torque, and elbow medial force in less accurate pitchers may contribute to increased injury risk in this group.

2022 ◽  
Yuki Yoshida ◽  
Noboru Matsumura ◽  
Yoshitake Yamada ◽  
Satoshi Hiraga ◽  
Kazunori Ishii ◽  

Abstract Background: Though alignment of the spine and lower extremities in the standing neutral position has been evaluated, a few studies evaluating the alignment of the upper extremities have also been made. This study assessed the normal alignment of the upper extremities in the standing neutral position and clarified the three-dimensional angular rotations of the upper extremity joints.Methods: Computed tomography (CT) images of 158 upper extremities from 79 healthy volunteers were prospectively acquired in the standing neutral position using an upright CT scanner. Three-dimensional coordinate systems of the thorax, scapula, humerus, and forearm were designated, and three-dimensional angular rotations of the scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, and elbow joints were calculated.Results: The mean angle of the scapulothoracic joint was 8.5° ± 5.9° of upward rotation, 28.7° ± 5.9° of internal rotation, and 7.9° ± 5.2° of anterior inclination. The mean angle of the glenohumeral joint was 4.4° ± 5.9° of abduction, 9.4° ± 12.3° of internal rotation, and 0.3° ± 4.4° of extension. The mean angle of the elbow joint was 9.6° ± 3.7° of valgus, 88.8° ± 14.3° of pronation, and 15.4° ± 4.2° of flexion. Correlations in angular rotation values were found, and interactions for keeping the upper extremities in a neutral position were observed.Conclusions: This study clarified the three-dimensional angular rotation of upper extremity joints in the standing neutral position using an upright CT scanner. Our results may provide important insights for the functional evaluation of upper extremity alignment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Lars Hansen ◽  
Sepp de Raedt ◽  
Peter Bo Jørgensen ◽  
Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen ◽  
Lone Rømer ◽  

Abstract Purpose Dynamic radiostereometric analysis (dRSA) enables precise non-invasive three-dimensional motion-tracking of bones for assessment of joint kinematics. Hereby, the biomechanical effects of arthroscopic osteochondroplasty of the hip (ACH) can be evaluated in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The aim was to investigate the pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM) and the CT bone volume removed (BV) after ACH. We hypothesize increase in ROM 1 year after surgery. Methods Thirteen patients (6 female) with symptomatic FAI were included prospectively. The patient’s hips were CT-scanned and CT-bone models were created. Preoperative dRSA recordings were acquired during passive flexion to 90°, adduction, and internal rotation (FADIR). ACH was performed, CT and dRSA were repeated 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Hip joint kinematics before, and 3 months and 1 year after ACH were compared pairwise. The bone volume removal was quantified and compared to change in ROM. Results Mean hip internal rotation, adduction and flexion were all unchanged after ACH at 1-year follow-up (p > 0.84). HAGOS scores revealed improvement of quality of life (QOL) from 32 to 60 (p = 0.02). The BV was between 406 and 1783 mm3 and did not correlate to post-operative ROM. Conclusions ACH surgery in FAI patients had no impact of ROM at 1-year follow-up. QOL improved significantly. This indicates that the positive clinical effects reported after ACH might be a result of reduced labral stress and cartilage pressure during end-range motion rather than increased ROM. Level of evidence Therapeutic prospective cohort study, level II.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Kazuyoshi Baba ◽  
Daisuke Chiba ◽  
Yu Mori ◽  
Yoshiyuki Kuwahara ◽  
Atsushi Kogure ◽  

Abstract Background This study examined the biomechanics of preventing excessive internal hip joint rotation related to the hip flexion angle. Method An intramedullary nail with a circular plate equipped with a protractor was installed in the femur of nine normal hips. The circular plate was pulled by 3.15 Nm of force in the internal rotation direction. The external rotators were individually resected, finally cutting the ischiofemoral ligament. The cutting order of the external rotators differed on each side to individually determine the internal rotation resistance. The external rotators were resected from the piriformis to the obturator externus in the right hips and the reverse order in the left hips. Traction was performed after excising each muscle and ischiofemoral ligament. Measurements were taken at 0°, 30°, and 60° of hip flexion, and the differences from baseline were calculated. Results For the right hip measurements, the piriformis and ischiofemoral ligament resection significantly differed at 0° of flexion (p = 0.02), each external rotator and the ischiofemoral ligament resections significantly differed at 30° of flexion (p < 0.01), and the ischiofemoral ligament and piriformis and inferior gemellus resections significantly differed at 60° of flexion (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). In the left hips, the ischiofemoral ligament and obturator externus, inferior gemellus, and obturator internus resections significantly differed at 0° of flexion (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.01, respectively), as did each external rotator and the ischiofemoral ligament resections at 30° of flexion (p < 0.01). Conclusion The ischiofemoral ligament primarily restricted the internal rotation of the hip joint. The piriformis and obturator internus may restrict internal rotation at 0° and 60° of flexion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 232596712110650
Sean M. Kennedy ◽  
Philip Sheedy ◽  
Brooks Klein ◽  
Mason F. Gist ◽  
Joseph P. Hannon ◽  

Background: Studies have indicated decreased shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength in the throwing limb of baseball players after ulnar collateral ligament injury. There is limited evidence on the recovery of shoulder rotation strength after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR). Hypothesis: At the time of return to throwing, baseball players who underwent UCLR would demonstrate decreased IR and ER shoulder strength in the throwing arm as compared with healthy baseball players. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male competitive high school and collegiate baseball athletes participated in this study. Athletes who underwent UCLR were compared with healthy controls who were matched by age, height, weight, and position. Bilateral isometric shoulder ER and IR strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer for all participants at the time of initial evaluation (UCLR group) and throughout the course of a season (healthy group). Independent t tests were run to calculate mean differences in ER and IR shoulder strength between the groups, with significance set at P < .05. Results: A total of 86 baseball athletes participated in this study (43 UCLR group, 43 healthy group). At the time of return to throwing (mean ± SD, 194 ± 30 days postoperatively), the 2 groups demonstrated no significant differences in nonthrowing arm ER or IR strength ( P = .143 and .994, respectively). No significant difference was found between groups for throwing arm ER strength ( P = .921); however, the UCLR group demonstrated significantly less throwing arm IR strength than the healthy group (144.2 ± 27.8 vs 157.6 ± 27.1 N; P = .023). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that throwing arm rotator cuff strength may not fully recover before the initiation of a return-to-throwing program after UCLR. These data provide a potential framework for clinicians to assist in the management and exercise prescription of the baseball athlete after UCLR and before medical release and the initiation of a return-to-throwing program.

Masahiro Mitsukane ◽  
Karen Suzuki ◽  
Ryusei Tabe ◽  
Fukuhiro Hasumi ◽  
Daiki Fukushima

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