Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Latest Publications


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

438
(FIVE YEARS 365)

H-INDEX

19
(FIVE YEARS 12)

Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

2197-1153, 2197-1153

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gianni De Petrillo ◽  
Thierry Pauyo ◽  
Corinna C. Franklin ◽  
Ross S. Chafetz ◽  
Marie-Lyne Nault ◽  
...  

AbstractAnterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is the preferred treatment to anterior cruciate ligament injury. With the increase in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in both adults and skeletally immature patients comes the need for individualized anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction graft selection whether it is the type of graft (auto vs. allograft) or the harvesting site (hamstrings, iliotibial band, quadriceps, patella). Several factors need to be considered preoperatively in order to optimize the patients’ recovery and restore anterior cruciate ligament strength and function. These include age and bone maturity, preoperative knee flexor/extensor strength, sport participation, patient’s needs and anatomical characteristics. This paper aims at bringing evidence supporting the use of a personalized approach in graft selection for faster and more efficient return to sport and propose a theoretical framework to support the approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Georgi P. Georgiev ◽  
Manasi Telang ◽  
Boycho Landzhov ◽  
Łukasz Olewnik ◽  
Svetoslav A. Slavchev ◽  
...  

AbstractAccording to current literature, 90% of knee ligament injuries involve the medial collateral ligament or the anterior cruciate ligament. In contrast to the medial collateral ligament, which regenerates relatively well, the anterior cruciate ligament demonstrates compromised healing. In the past, there were numerous studies in animal models that examined the healing process of these ligaments, and different explanations were established. Although the healing of these ligaments has been largely investigated and different theories exist, unanswered questions persist.Therefore, the aim of this article is 1) to review the different historical aspects of healing of the medial collateral ligament and present the theories for healing failure of the anterior cruciate ligament; 2) to examine the novel epiligament theory explaining the medial collateral ligament healing process and failure of anterior cruciate ligament healing; and 3) to discuss why the enveloping tissue microstructure of the aforementioned ligaments needs to be examined in future studies.We believe that knowledge of the novel epiligament theory will lead to a better understanding of the normal healing process for implementing optimal treatments, as well as a more holistic explanation for anterior cruciate ligament healing failure.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Grégoire Thürig ◽  
Raùl Panadero-Morales ◽  
Luca Giovannelli ◽  
Franziska Kocher ◽  
José Luis Peris ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose This study's main objective is to assess the feasibility of processing the MRI information with identified ACL-footprints into 2D-images similar to a conventional anteroposterior and lateral X-Ray image of the knee. The secondary aim is to conduct specific measurements to assess the reliability and reproducibility. This study is a proof of concept of this technique. Methods Five anonymised MRIs of a right knee were analysed. A orthopaedic knee surgeon performed the footprints identification. An ad-hoc software allowed a volumetric 3D image projection on a 2D anteroposterior and lateral view. The previously defined anatomical femoral and tibial footprints were precisely identified on these views. Several parameters were measured (e.g. coronal and sagittal ratio of tibial footprint, sagittal ratio of femoral footprint, femoral intercondylar notch roof angle, proximal tibial slope and others). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs), including 95% confidence intervals (CIs), has been calculated to assess intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability. Results Five MRI scans of a right knee have been assessed (three females, two males, mean age of 30.8 years old). Five 2D-"CLASS" have been created. The measured parameters showed a "substantial" to "almost perfect" reproducibility and an "almost perfect" reliability. Conclusion This study confirmed the possibility of generating "CLASS" with the localised centroid of the femoral and tibial ACL footprints from a 3D volumetric model. "CLASS" also showed that these footprints were easily identified on standard anteroposterior and lateral X-Ray views of the same patient, thus allowing an individual identification of the anatomical femoral and tibial ACL's footprints. Level of evidence Level IV diagnostic study


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Acevedo Tobler ◽  
Santiago Hermosilla ◽  
Natalia Otero ◽  
Juan Kenny ◽  
Juan Del Castillo

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the possibility to access the anatomic femoral insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) through trans-tibial (TT) and trans-portal technique, for ACL reconstruction in an independent way. To register anatomical characteristics of the TT tunnels. Methods Ten formaldehyde preserved knee anatomic articular specimens were dissected. Femoral tunnels were confectioned reproducing the original topography of the ACL. First, the femoral tunnel was made with the independent trans-portal technique. Then, utilizing the tibial stump of the ACL and tibial guides at 45°, the TT tunnels were confectioned trying to match the previously made femoral tunnel by trans-portal technique. Results In all specimens, match between the TT tunnel with the independent trans-portal tunnel was achieved. Mean values for TT coronal angle was 53,0°, for transversal angle 43,3° and for distance from tunnel to joint line 2,55 cm. A horizontalization and medialization of the TT tunnels had to be made to adequately match with the femoral tunnel made by the independent trans-portal technique. Conclusions By macroscopic anatomic and independent means, an anatomic femoral tunnel was confectioned with the TT technique matching with the anatomic femoral tunnel made in an independent way. As clinical relevance, the present study allows to anatomically assess the possibility to perform an anatomic femoral tunnel through the TT technique. Level of evidence V


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
David M. Heath ◽  
Alexander V. Nguyen ◽  
Travis S. Bullock ◽  
Samuel S. Ornell ◽  
Katherine C. Bartush ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose To develop a method for using an intact posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) as a predictor of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft size and examine possible differences in tunnel length based on all-epiphyseal drilling method. Methods One hundred one patients 5–18 years of age with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at an outpatient pediatric orthopaedic clinic from 2008 to 2020 were included. ACL and PCL coronal, sagittal, and length measurements were made in all patients. Tunnel length measurements were made in patients with open physes. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate potential associations in patient bony or ligamentous measurements. Results PCL sagittal width and PCL coronal width were statistically significant predictors of ACL sagittal width and ACL coronal width, respectively (p = 0.002, R = 0.304; p = 0.008, R = 0.264). The following equations were developed to calculate ACL coronal and sagittal width measurements from the corresponding measurement on an intact PCL; ACL Coronal Width (mm) = 6.23 + (0.16 x PCL Coronal Width); ACL Sagittal Width (mm) = 5.85 + (0.53 x PCL Sagittal Width). Mean tibial maximum oblique length (27.8 mm) was longer than mean tibial physeal sparing length (24.9 mm). Mean femoral maximum oblique length (36.9 mm) was comparable to mean femoral physeal sparing length (36.1 mm). Both were longer than mean femoral straight lateral length (32.7 mm). Conclusion An intact PCL is a predictor of native ACL size. Tunnel length differs based on chosen drilling method in all-epiphyseal technique. Level of evidence Diagnostic Level III.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Pouya Dehestani ◽  
Farzam Farahmand ◽  
Amirhossein Borjali ◽  
Kaveh Bashti ◽  
Mahmoud Chizari

Abstract Purpose Core Bone Plug Fixation (CBPF) technique is an implant-less methodology for ACL reconstruction. This study investigates the effect of bone density on CBPF stability to identify the bone quality that is likely to benefit from this technique. Methods Artificial blocks with 160 (Group 1), 240 (Group 2), and 320 (Group 3) kg/m3 densities were used to simulate human bone with diverse qualities. These groups are representative of the elderly, middle age and young people, respectively. A tunnel was made in each test sample using a cannulated drill bit which enabled harvesting the core bone plug intact. Fresh animal tendon grafts were prepared and passed through the tunnel, so the core bone was pushed in to secure the tendon. The fixation stability was tested by applying a cyclic load following by a pullout load until the failure occurred. The selected group was compared with interference screw fixation technique as a gold standard method in ACL reconstruction. Results The Group 2 stiffness and yield strength were significantly larger than Group 1. The graft slippage of Group 1 was significantly less than Group 3. The ultimate strengths were 310 N and 363 N, in Groups 2 and 3, significantly larger than that of Group 1. The ultimate strength in fixation by interference screw was 693.18 N, significantly larger than the bone plug method. Conclusions The stability of CBPF was greatly affected by bone density. This technique is more suitable for young and middle-aged people. With further improvements, the CBPF might be an alternative ACL reconstruction technique for patients with good bone quality. Clinical relevance The CBPF technique offers an implant-less organic ACL reconstruction technique with numerous advantages and likely would speed up the healing process by using the patient’s own bones and tissues rather than any non-biologic fixations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lars Hansen ◽  
Sepp de Raedt ◽  
Peter Bo Jørgensen ◽  
Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen ◽  
Lone Rømer ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Dynamic radiostereometric analysis (dRSA) enables precise non-invasive three-dimensional motion-tracking of bones for assessment of joint kinematics. Hereby, the biomechanical effects of arthroscopic osteochondroplasty of the hip (ACH) can be evaluated in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The aim was to investigate the pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM) and the CT bone volume removed (BV) after ACH. We hypothesize increase in ROM 1 year after surgery. Methods Thirteen patients (6 female) with symptomatic FAI were included prospectively. The patient’s hips were CT-scanned and CT-bone models were created. Preoperative dRSA recordings were acquired during passive flexion to 90°, adduction, and internal rotation (FADIR). ACH was performed, CT and dRSA were repeated 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Hip joint kinematics before, and 3 months and 1 year after ACH were compared pairwise. The bone volume removal was quantified and compared to change in ROM. Results Mean hip internal rotation, adduction and flexion were all unchanged after ACH at 1-year follow-up (p > 0.84). HAGOS scores revealed improvement of quality of life (QOL) from 32 to 60 (p = 0.02). The BV was between 406 and 1783 mm3 and did not correlate to post-operative ROM. Conclusions ACH surgery in FAI patients had no impact of ROM at 1-year follow-up. QOL improved significantly. This indicates that the positive clinical effects reported after ACH might be a result of reduced labral stress and cartilage pressure during end-range motion rather than increased ROM. Level of evidence Therapeutic prospective cohort study, level II.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Samuel Newman ◽  
Huzefah Ahmed ◽  
Nader Rehmatullah

Abstract Purpose Radiographs and MRI scans are commonly used imaging techniques in the assessment of knee osteoarthritis. However, it currently remains uncertain how good a representation of the actual condition of the knee joint these investigations provide. By comparing them against arthroscopic findings the aim of our study was to conclude how accurate these imaging techniques are at grading knee osteoarthritis. Methods This was a retrospective study looking at knee arthroscopies performed at a tertiary centre over a 5 year period. The Outerbridge grade given at arthroscopy was correlated with pre-operative radiograph and MRI scores, so as to assess the reliability of these imaging techniques at predicting the actual severity of knee osteoarthritis seen. Results Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading of radiographs was moderately correlated with Outerbridge grades from arthroscopy for the medial compartment of the knee (Spearman’s rho (SR) 0.483, p < 0.001), with a milder correlation in the lateral compartment (SR 0.218, p = 0.003). MRI reporting of knee osteoarthritis was moderately correlated with Outerbridge grades in the medial compartment (SR 0.451, p < 0.001), mildly correlated for both the lateral (SR 0.299, p < 0.001) and patellofemoral joint compartments (SR 0.142, p = 0.054). KL and MRI grading was moderately correlated for the medial compartment (SR 0.475, p < 0.001) and mildly correlated for the lateral compartment (SR 0.277, p < 0.001). Conclusion The ability of radiographs to represent the actual condition of knee osteoarthritis is underestimated. KL grading especially best represents the disease seen in the medial compartment of the knee joint, with a moderate correlation to Outerbridge scores given on arthroscopic assessment. We suggest that whilst MRI is a useful tool in the investigation of knee symptoms, it is often unnecessarily used in patients with OA, when in fact, radiographs alone would be sufficient. Evidence level III


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Danielle N. Ochocki ◽  
Benjamin E. Loflin ◽  
Taeyong Ahn ◽  
Kaitlyn A. Colglazier ◽  
Andrew R. Young ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates continue to rise among youth involved in recreational and competitive athletics, requiring a better understanding of how the knee structurally and mechanically responds to activity during musculoskeletal growth. Little is understood about how anatomical risk factors for ACL injury (e.g., small ACL size, narrow intercondylar notch, and steep posterior tibial slope) develop and respond to increased physical activity throughout growth. We hypothesized that the ACL-complex of mice engaged in moderate to strenuous physical activity (i.e., endurance running) throughout late adolescence and young adulthood would positively functionally adapt to repetitive load perturbations. Methods Female C57BL6/J mice (8 weeks of age) were either provided free access to a standard cage wheel with added resistance (n = 18) or normal cage activity (n = 18), for a duration of 4 weeks. Daily distance ran, weekly body and food weights, and pre- and post-study body composition measures were recorded. At study completion, muscle weights, three-dimensional knee morphology, ACL cross-sectional area, and ACL mechanical properties of runners and nonrunners were quantified. Statistical comparisons between runners and nonrunners were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance and a Tukey multiple comparisons test, with body weight included as a covariate. Results Runners had larger quadriceps (p = 0.02) and gastrocnemius (p = 0.05) muscles, but smaller hamstring (p = 0.05) muscles, compared to nonrunners. Though there was no significant difference in ACL size (p = 0.24), it was 13% stronger in runners (p = 0.03). Additionally, both the posterior medial and lateral tibial slopes were 1.2 to 2.2 degrees flatter than those of nonrunners (p < 0.01). Conclusions Positive functional adaptations of the knee joint to moderate to strenuous exercise in inbred mice offers hope that that some anatomical risk factors for ACL injury may be reduced through habitual physical activity. However, confirmation that a similar response to loading occurs in humans is needed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kengo Shimozaki ◽  
Junsuke Nakase ◽  
Yoshinori Ohashi ◽  
Toru Kuzumaki ◽  
Tatsuya Yamaguchi ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the properties of tendon gel by investigating the histological and structural differences among tendon gels under different preservation periods using a rabbit model. Methods Forty mature female rabbits were divided into four groups, each containing ten rabbits, on the basis of in-vivo preservation periods of tendon gels (3, 5, 10, and 15 days). We created the Achilles tendon rupture models using the film model method to obtain tendon gels. Tensile stress was applied to the tendon gel to promote maturation. Histological and structural evaluations of the tendon gel were performed before and after applying the tensile force, and the results obtained from the four groups were compared. Results Although the day-3 and day-5 tendon gels before applying tensile stress were histologically more immature than the day-10 and day-15 gels, type I collagen fibers equivalent to those of normal tendons were observed in all groups after the tensile process. Based on the surface and molecular structural evaluations, the day-3 tendon gels after the tensile process were molecularly cross-linked, and thick collagen fibers similar to those present in normal tendons were observed. Structural maturation observed in the day-3 tendon gels caused by traction was hardly observed in the day-5, -10, and -15 tendon gels. Conclusions The day-3 tendon gel had the highest regenerative potential to become a normal tendon by applying a traction force.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document