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2021 ◽  
Nicolas Spatola ◽  
Serena Marchesi ◽  
Agnieszka Wykowska

How individuals interpret robots’ actions is a timely question in the context of the general approach to increase robot’s presence in human social environment in the decades to come. Facing robots, people might have a tendency to explain their actions in mentalistic terms, granting them intentions. However, how automatic or controllable this process is still under debate. In four studies, we asked participants to choose between mentalistic (intentional) and mechanistic (non-intentional) descriptions to describe depicted actions of a robot in various scenarios. Our results show the primacy of mentalistic descriptions over mechanistic ones (study 1). This effect was even stronger under high vs low cognitive load (study 2). Interestingly, while there was no effect of cognitive load at the later stages of the processing arguing for controllability (study 3), imposing cognitive load on participants at an early stage of observation resulted in a higher likelihood to attribute mentalistic properties to the robot (study 4). We discuss these results in the context of the idea that social cognition is a default system.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Dandan Xu ◽  
Shuo Yan ◽  
Yuhan Zhang ◽  
Si Zhang ◽  
Yoshiteru Nakamori ◽  

Purpose Taking the COVID-19 as the background, this study aims to investigate the direct influencing factors regarding knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) on new media platforms and discuss how the characteristics of the users could enhance the KSB through moderation effect, and provide empirical evidences. Design/methodology/approach Based on the social exchange theory and after the text analysis of the data collected from the Tiktok platform in 2020, this paper uses the quantitative method to evaluate the factors influence KSB on short video social platform during the COVID-19 outbreak. Findings KSB on new media platform could be enhanced by richer knowledge content of the video posted and the attribute of the platform users directly. Platform users could affect the trustworthiness of the knowledge shared, thus influence the knowledge sharing. On the early stage of the COVID-19, the richer content of the knowledge released by users could effectively enhance the KSB. On the early stage of the emergency events, the official users could play a significant role on KS. During the mitigation stage of COVID-19, the KSB of the knowledge shared by unofficial users with richer content could be enhanced and the moderation effect is relatively stronger. Originality/value The research extends the social exchange theory to a disaster management context. The authors provide an effective reference for future governments to effectively cope with the epidemic and spread public knowledge in an emergency response context. By analyzing the influence of knowledge content and influencer characteristics, it could help the social media platform to improve content management and optimize resource allocation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 201010582110573
Nashrulhaq Tagiling ◽  
Maya Mazuwin Yahya ◽  
Wan Zainira Wan Zain ◽  
Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul Rahman ◽  
Norazlina Mat Nawi

Intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) with methylene blue dye (MBD) tracer has been the recommended method to detect SLN in early-stage breast cancer patients in low-resource settings. However, the use of MBD alone is hampered by the high false-negative rate; thus, it requires coupling with other mapping methods if the appropriate infrastructure and services are available. In this article, we present two prospective cases detailing our initial experience using the gold-standard dual tracer technique (DTT: MBD and 99mTc-nanocolloid radioisotope) in combination with hybrid single-photon emission computed-tomography/computed-tomography (SPECT/CT) preoperative mapping for image-guided SLN biopsy (SLNB). Overall, both studies were successful in identifying the SLNs, which aided in mapping the possible anatomical spread of the disease.

Linus Klug ◽  
Nikolaus Froitzheim

AbstractThe Ötztal Nappe in the Eastern Alps is a thrust sheet of Variscan metamorphic basement rocks and their Mesozoic sediment cover. It has been argued that the main part of the Ötztal Nappe and its southeastern part, the Texel Complex, belong to two different Austroalpine nappe systems and are separated by a major tectonic contact. Different locations have been proposed for this boundary. We use microprobe mapping of garnet and structural field geology to test the hypothesis of such a tectonic separation. The Pre-Mesozoic rocks in the area include several lithotectonic units: Ötztal Complex s.str., Texel Complex, Laas Complex, Schneeberg Complex, and Schneeberg Frame Zone. With the exception of the Schneeberg Complex which contains only single-phased (Eoalpine, i.e. Late Cretaceous) garnet, all these units have two-phased garnet with Variscan cores and Eoalpine rims. The Schneeberg Complex represents Paleozoic sediments with only low-grade (sub-garnet-grade) Variscan metamorphism which was thrust over the other units and their Mesozoic cover (Brenner Mesozoic) during an early stage of the Eoalpine orogeny, before the peak of Eoalpine metamorphism and garnet growth. Folding of the thrust later modified the structural setting so that the Schneeberg Thrust was locally inverted and the Schneeberg Complex came to lie under the Ötztal Complex s.str. The hypothesized Ötztal/Texel boundaries of earlier authors either cut across undisturbed lithological layering or are unsupported by any structural evidence. Our results support the existence of one coherent Ötztal Nappe, including the Texel Complex, and showing a southeastward increase of Eoalpine metamorphism which resulted from southeastward subduction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 145-156
Somda S.M.A. ◽  
Dabone E.B.A. ◽  
Doulougou M. ◽  
Bationo C.S. ◽  
Galboni K.T.M.

In this article, we propose a Bayesian approach for estimating and predicting the magnitude of the coronavirus epidemic in Burkina Faso in its early stage. Our approach is inspired by the work of Wang et al. but adapted to the Burkinabe context. Two models are presented: a simple Bayesian SIR approach and another Bayesian SIR which takes into account the public health measures undertaken by the government of Burkina Faso. The approach was implemented at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Burkina Faso, covering the period from March 9 to April 30, 2020. The results of the analyses will allow a good prediction of COVID-19 infections and deaths in the early days of the epidemic, considering government policies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 59 (12) ◽  
pp. 893-903
Jae-Hun Kim ◽  
Hyun-Uk Jun ◽  
Joo-Yong Cheon ◽  
Jae-won Kim ◽  
Jae-deuk Kim ◽  

This study evaluated the effect of preheating on early stage melting behavior of a Al-Si coated hot stamped boron steel bolt during projection welding. A large amount of heat was generated in the early stage of projection welding. Because of the large heat generation, a rapid collapse of the projection occurred and a molten coating layer remained on the interface of the welded part. This caused welding defects such as expulsion and porosity. However, preheating helped remove the molten Al-Si coating layer by pushing it out toward the outer edge of the molten pool. This suggests that preheating can effectively minimize or remove the molten coating layer within the weld. Preheating also prevented the rapid collapse of the projection by partially melting the projection, and thus improving the contact area. These phenomena can prevent the concentration of current density at the weld interface and hence decrease heat generation. Finally, the preheating current improved nugget quality by promoting the stable growth of the melted metal and by preventing expulsion and porosity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Vinícius Ferreira Galvão ◽  
Cristiano Maciel ◽  
Roberto Pereira ◽  
Isabela Gasparini ◽  
José Viterbo ◽  

AbstractIntense social media interaction, wearable devices, mobile applications, and pervasive use of sensors have created a personal information ecosystem for gathering traces of individual behavior. These traces are the digital legacy individuals build all through their lives. Advances in artificial intelligence have fed our dream to build artificial agents trained with these digital traces to behave similarly to a deceased person, and individuals are facing the possibility of immortalizing their ideas, reasoning and behavior. Are people prepared for that? Are people willing to do that? How do people perceive the possibility of letting digital avatars take care of their digital legacy? This paper sheds light on these questions by discussing users’ perceptions towards digital immortality in a focus group analysis with 8 participants. Our findings suggest some key human values must be addressed. These findings can serve as preliminary thoughts to inform system design, from the very early stage of development, that preserve the digital legacy while respecting the human needs and values concerning the delicate emotional moment that death provides. This qualitative research analyzes the data, and based on the insights learned, proposes important considerations for future developments in this area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Sajida Kousar ◽  
Farah Aslam ◽  
Nasreen Kausar ◽  
Yaé Ulrich Gaba

The twin-spool turbofan engine is an important component of almost every modern aircraft. Fault detection at an early stage can improve engine performance and health. The current research is based on the construction of an inference system for fault diagnosis in a generalized fuzzy environment. For such an inference system, finite-state deterministic intuitionistic fuzzy automata (FDIFA) are established. A semigroup of FDIFA and its algebraic properties including substructures and structure-preserving maps are studied. The FDIFA semigroups are used as variables for the inference system, and FDIFA semigroup homomorphisms are used to indicate the relation between variables. The newly established model is then applied to diagnose the possible fault and their nature in aircraft twin-spool turbofan engines by modelling the performance of the supercharger and air cooler.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Eun Hye Jeong ◽  
Mun Kyung Sunwoo ◽  
Sung Wook Hyung ◽  
Sun-Ku Han ◽  
Jae Yong Lee

Background. Autonomic dysfunctions occur in the early stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and impact the quality of life during the progression of the disease. In this study, we evaluated the serial progression of autonomic dysfunctions between different subtypes of a prospective PD cohort. Materials and Methods. From the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database, 325 PD patients (age: 61.2 ± 9.7, M : F = 215 : 110) were enrolled. Patients were subgrouped into tremor-dominant (TD), indeterminate, and postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) subtypes. The progression of autonomic dysfunctions and dopaminergic denervation from I-123 FP-CIT SPECT images of each group were analyzed and compared at baseline, 12 months, 24 months, and 48 months of follow-up periods. Results. The SCOPA-AUT score of the indeterminate subtype was significantly higher than that of the TD subtype ( P < 0.05 ) at baseline and was significantly higher than that of both TD and PIGD subtypes ( P < 0.05 ) at 48 months. The indeterminate subtype had the most significant correlation between the aggravation of dopaminergic denervation in I-123 FP-CIT SPECT images and the increase of SCOPA-AUT scores during 48 months of follow-up (r = 0.56, P < 0.01 ). Conclusions. Autonomic dysfunctions were most severe in the indeterminate subtype throughout the 48 months of the follow-up period, with a significant correlation with dopaminergic denervation. We suggest a positive relationship between dopaminergic denervation and autonomic dysfunctions of the indeterminate subtype, beginning from the early stage of PD.

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