Loss Of Genetic Diversity
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Natalia Paola Petit-Marty ◽  
Liu Min ◽  
Iris Ziying Tan ◽  
Arthur Chung ◽  
Barbara Terrasa ◽  
...  

Exploited fish species may have or are experiencing declines in population sizes coupled with a decrease in genetic diversity. This can lead to the loss of adaptive potential to face current and future environmental changes. However, little is known about this subject while research on it is urgently needed. Thus, this study aims to answer a simple, even naive question, given the complexity of the subject: Could we use a simple method to obtain information on the loss of genetic diversity in exploited fish species? We investigated the use of the levels of genetic diversity in the widely used genetic marker Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene. Estimates of genetic diversity in COI were obtained for populations of seven fish species with different commercial importance from the East China Sea. These estimates were contrasted against a large dataset of fish species distributed worldwide (N=1426), a dataset of East-Asian fish species (N=118), two farmed species with expected low genetic diversity, and four long-term managed species from the Mediterranean Sea. We found that estimates of genetic diversity in COI match the expectations from theoretical predictions, known population declines, and fishing pressures. Thus, the answer to our question is affirmative and we conclude that estimates of genetic diversity in COI provide an effective first diagnostic of the conservation status of exploited fish species. This simple and cost-effective tool can help prioritize research, management, and conservation on species with suspected loss of genetic diversity potentially eroding their adaptive potential to global change.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Gemma Bowker-Wright

<p>Pateke/brown teal (Anas chlorotis) have experienced a severe population crash leaving only two remnant wild populations (at Great Barrier Island and Mimiwhangata, Northland). Recovery attempts over the last 35 years have focused on an intensive captive breeding programme which breeds pateke, sourced almost exclusively from Great Barrier Island, for release to establish re-introduced populations in areas occupied in the past. While this important conservation measure may have increased pateke numbers, it was unclear how much of their genetic diversity was being retained. The goal of this study was to determine current levels of genetic variation in the remnant, captive and re-introduced pateke populations using two types of molecular marker, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA. Feathers were collected from pateke at Great Barrier Island, Mimiwhangata, the captive breeding population and four re-introduced populations (at Moehau, Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Tiritiri Matangi Island and Mana Island). DNA was extracted from the base of the feathers, the mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced, and DNA microsatellite markers were used to genotype individuals. The Great Barrier Island population was found to have only two haplotypes, one in very high abundance which may indicate that historically this population was very small. The captive breeding population and all four re-introduced populations were found to contain only the abundant Great Barrier Island haplotype as the vast majority of captive founders were sourced from this location. In contrast, the Mimiwhangata population contained genetic diversity and 11 haplotypes were found, including the Great Barrier Island haplotype which may have been introduced by captive-bred releases which occurred until the early 1990s. From the microsatellite results, a loss of genetic diversity (measured as average alleles per locus, heterozygosity and allelic richness) was found from Great Barrier Island to captivity and from captivity to re-introduction. Overall genetic diversity within the re-introduced populations (particularly the smaller re-introduced populations at Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Tiritiri Matangi Island and Mana Island) was much reduced compared with the remnant populations, most probably as a result of small release numbers and small population size. Such loss of genetic diversity could render the re-introduced populations more susceptible to inbreeding depression in the future. Suggested future genetic management options are included which aim for a broader representation of genetic diversity in the pateke captive breeding and release programme.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Gemma Bowker-Wright

<p>Pateke/brown teal (Anas chlorotis) have experienced a severe population crash leaving only two remnant wild populations (at Great Barrier Island and Mimiwhangata, Northland). Recovery attempts over the last 35 years have focused on an intensive captive breeding programme which breeds pateke, sourced almost exclusively from Great Barrier Island, for release to establish re-introduced populations in areas occupied in the past. While this important conservation measure may have increased pateke numbers, it was unclear how much of their genetic diversity was being retained. The goal of this study was to determine current levels of genetic variation in the remnant, captive and re-introduced pateke populations using two types of molecular marker, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA. Feathers were collected from pateke at Great Barrier Island, Mimiwhangata, the captive breeding population and four re-introduced populations (at Moehau, Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Tiritiri Matangi Island and Mana Island). DNA was extracted from the base of the feathers, the mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced, and DNA microsatellite markers were used to genotype individuals. The Great Barrier Island population was found to have only two haplotypes, one in very high abundance which may indicate that historically this population was very small. The captive breeding population and all four re-introduced populations were found to contain only the abundant Great Barrier Island haplotype as the vast majority of captive founders were sourced from this location. In contrast, the Mimiwhangata population contained genetic diversity and 11 haplotypes were found, including the Great Barrier Island haplotype which may have been introduced by captive-bred releases which occurred until the early 1990s. From the microsatellite results, a loss of genetic diversity (measured as average alleles per locus, heterozygosity and allelic richness) was found from Great Barrier Island to captivity and from captivity to re-introduction. Overall genetic diversity within the re-introduced populations (particularly the smaller re-introduced populations at Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Tiritiri Matangi Island and Mana Island) was much reduced compared with the remnant populations, most probably as a result of small release numbers and small population size. Such loss of genetic diversity could render the re-introduced populations more susceptible to inbreeding depression in the future. Suggested future genetic management options are included which aim for a broader representation of genetic diversity in the pateke captive breeding and release programme.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Kimberly Anne Miller

<p>As habitat loss, introduced predators, and disease epidemics threaten species worldwide, translocation provides one of the most powerful tools for species conservation. However, reintroduced populations of threatened species are often founded by a small number of individuals (typically 30 in New Zealand) and generally have low success rates. The loss of genetic diversity combined with inbreeding depression in a small reintroduced population could reduce the probability of establishment and persistence. Effective management of genetic diversity is therefore central to the success of reintroduced populations in both the short- and long-term. Using population modelling and empirical data from source and reintroduced populations of skinks and tuatara, I examined factors that influence inbreeding dynamics and the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity in translocated populations. The translocation of gravid females aided in increasing the effective population size after reintroduction. Models showed that supplementation of reintroduced populations reduced the loss of heterozygosity over 10 generations in species with low reproductive output, but not for species with higher output. Harvesting from a reintroduced population for a second-order translocation accelerated the loss of heterozygosity in species with low intrinsic rates of population growth. Male reproductive skew also accelerated the loss of genetic diversity over 10 generations, but the effect was only significant when the population size was small. Further, when populations at opposite ends of a species' historic range are disproportionately vulnerable to extinction and background inbreeding is high, genetic differentiation among populations may be an artefact of an historic genetic gradient coupled with rapid genetic drift. In these situations, marked genetic differences should not preclude hybridising populations to mitigate the risks of inbreeding after reintroduction. These results improve translocation planning for many species by offering guidelines for maximising genetic diversity in founder groups and managing populations to improve the long-term maintenance of diversity. For example, founder groups should be larger than 30 for  reintroductions of species with low reproductive output, high mortality rates after release, highly polygynous mating systems, and high levels of background inbreeding. This study also provides a basis for the development of more complex models of losses of genetic diversity after translocation and how genetic drift may affect the long-term persistence of these valuable  populations.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Kimberly Anne Miller

<p>As habitat loss, introduced predators, and disease epidemics threaten species worldwide, translocation provides one of the most powerful tools for species conservation. However, reintroduced populations of threatened species are often founded by a small number of individuals (typically 30 in New Zealand) and generally have low success rates. The loss of genetic diversity combined with inbreeding depression in a small reintroduced population could reduce the probability of establishment and persistence. Effective management of genetic diversity is therefore central to the success of reintroduced populations in both the short- and long-term. Using population modelling and empirical data from source and reintroduced populations of skinks and tuatara, I examined factors that influence inbreeding dynamics and the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity in translocated populations. The translocation of gravid females aided in increasing the effective population size after reintroduction. Models showed that supplementation of reintroduced populations reduced the loss of heterozygosity over 10 generations in species with low reproductive output, but not for species with higher output. Harvesting from a reintroduced population for a second-order translocation accelerated the loss of heterozygosity in species with low intrinsic rates of population growth. Male reproductive skew also accelerated the loss of genetic diversity over 10 generations, but the effect was only significant when the population size was small. Further, when populations at opposite ends of a species' historic range are disproportionately vulnerable to extinction and background inbreeding is high, genetic differentiation among populations may be an artefact of an historic genetic gradient coupled with rapid genetic drift. In these situations, marked genetic differences should not preclude hybridising populations to mitigate the risks of inbreeding after reintroduction. These results improve translocation planning for many species by offering guidelines for maximising genetic diversity in founder groups and managing populations to improve the long-term maintenance of diversity. For example, founder groups should be larger than 30 for  reintroductions of species with low reproductive output, high mortality rates after release, highly polygynous mating systems, and high levels of background inbreeding. This study also provides a basis for the development of more complex models of losses of genetic diversity after translocation and how genetic drift may affect the long-term persistence of these valuable  populations.</p>


2021 ◽  
pp. 20-31
Author(s):  
Michael H. Crawford ◽  
Sarah Alden ◽  
Randy E. David ◽  
Kristine Beaty

There were diverse causes and demographic and evolutionary consequences of migration of the Unangan (a.k.a. Aleut) people in their expansion from Siberia through the Aleutian archipelago. The causes included subsistence patterns, volcanic eruptions that destroyed island econiches, climatic changes that calmed the seas and made interisland migrations possible, and cultural contacts as well as forcible relocations. The consequences of the migrations included an intimate relationship between genetics, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA, and geography; loss of genetic diversity due to population fission along kin groups; creation of genetic barriers due to periodic climatic limitations to migrations; population genetic differentiation due to kin migration and founder effect; and admixture with Russian administrators and military in the western and central islands and with fishermen of English and Scandinavian ancestry in the eastern islands.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Angela Whittaker

Abstract Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region; it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries; high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [Cyrtosperma merkusii]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.


2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. e01457
Author(s):  
Cassandra M. Miller-Butterworth ◽  
Duane R. Diefenbach ◽  
Jessie E. Edson ◽  
Leslie A. Hansen ◽  
James D. Jordan ◽  
...  

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