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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anthony Osei Tutu ◽  
Christopher Harig

Earth’s long-wavelength geoid provides insights into the thermal, structural, and compositional evolution of the mantle. Historically, most estimates of mantle viscosity using the long-wavelength geoid have considered radial variations with depth in a symmetric Earth. Global estimates of this kind suggest an increase in viscosity from the upper mantle to lower mantle of roughly 2 -- 3 orders of magnitude. Using a spatio-spectral localization technique with the geoid, here we estimate a series of locally constrained viscosity-depth profiles covering two unique regions, the Pacific and Atlantic hemispheres, which show distinct rheological properties. The Pacific region exhibits the conventional Earth's 1D rheology with a factor of roughly 80-100 increase in viscosity occurring at transition zone depths (400 - 800 km). The Atlantic region in contrast does not show significant viscosity jumps with depth, and instead has a near uniform viscosity in the top 1000~km. The inferred viscosity variations between our two regions could be due to the prevalence of present-day subduction in the Pacific and the infrequence of slabs in the Atlantic, combined with a possible hydrated transition zone and mid-mantle of the Atlantic region by ancient subduction during recent supercontinent cycles. Rigid slab material within the top 800 km, with about 90\% Majoritic garnet in the form of subducted oceanic crust, coupled with unique regional mantle structures, may be generating a strong transition zone viscosity interface for the Pacific region. These effective lateral variations in mantle viscosity could play a role in the observed deformation differences between the Pacific and Atlantic hemispheres.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kumaraguru Mahadevan ◽  
Arun Elias ◽  
Premaratne Samaranayake

PurposeThe main purpose of this research is to investigate the supply chain performance through collaborative effectiveness, from the organisations of Asia–Pacific region perspective, compared with that of global organisations based on collaborative supply chain practices.Design/methodology/approachThe survey research methodology was adopted, involving the collection of survey data from 223 participants across 10 different industries and 6 geographic regions. Data included 103 organisations in the Asia–Pacific region including Australia, India, China, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand.FindingsFrom a collaborative effectiveness perspective, the supply chain performance of Asia–Pacific organisations is different when compared with that of global organisations. It was also found that global organisations are driven by sales performance, while Asia–Pacific organisations are focussing mainly on the cost in terms of the number of employees, and therefore productivity. The metal industry stands out to be the best performing industry from a collaborative effectiveness perspective in the Asia–Pacific region and globally.Practical implicationsThe research findings can be used as a guide by industry practitioners to develop benchmarks for collaborative supply chain practices by industry and region of operations. This research has been limited to a few industries such as manufacturing, logistics, service and retail industries.Originality/valueThis research generates new knowledge on the relationship between the collaborative effectiveness and supply chain performance, from the perspectives of both Asia–Pacific and global organisations, based on a collaborative effectiveness framework. The study proposes an innovative approach of assessing supply chain performance through collaborative effectiveness from the perspectives of geographical boundaries and industry types.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Author(s):  
Min Kang ◽  
Mark Zanin ◽  
Sook-San Wong

Subtype H3N2 influenza A viruses (A(H3N2)) have been the dominant strain in some countries in the Western Pacific region since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza; however, low vaccine effectiveness has been reported in some influenza seasons, especially for A(H3N2). Antigenic mismatch introduced by egg-adaptation during vaccine production between the vaccine and circulating viral stains is one of the reasons for low vaccine effectiveness. Here we review the extent of this phenomenon, the underlying molecular mechanisms and discuss recent strategies to ameliorate this, including new vaccine platforms that may provide better protection and should be considered to reduce the impact of A(H3N2) in the Western Pacific region.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Chul Chung ◽  
Innwon Park ◽  
Soonchan Park

Abstract We investigate the effects of free trade agreements (FTAs), focusing on the impact of cumulative rules of origin (ROO) on trade costs. Using a gravity regression model, we estimate the effect of various cumulative ROO systems on the measured trade costs. We apply these estimates to static and capital accumulation computable general equilibrium models to compare the effects of mega-regional FTAs in the Asia-Pacific region—namely, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), and Free Trade Areas in the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). We find that mega-regional FTAs may not be a viable alternative to a multilateral trading system or bilateral FTAs unless less restrictive cumulative ROO are adopted. Successful FTAs depend on an appropriate cumulative ROO provision system rather than their membership expansion.


Author(s):  
Roque Indalecio ◽  

At a Western Pacific Region school district with six public high schools, district administrators implemented an educational technology training program (ETTP) to improve technology integration in the classroom as measured by the Effective Learning Environments Observation Tool, but there was no follow-up to determine how the teachers perceived the ETTP and to identify the experiences of teachers related to instructional technology after taking the district training. This basic qualitative study, guided by the technology acceptance model, addressed this problem in the district by exploring how the teachers perceived the technology professional development program provided by the district and the teachers’ experiences related to instructional technology after taking the district training. The purposeful sample included 13 Western Pacific Region high school teachers who were interviewed via Zoom. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to create codes, categories, and themes. The participants perceived the ETTP as helpful because they learned new tools and increased their confidence in using technology in their classrooms. Results showed that after completing the ETTP, teachers still needed content-specific technology training and continuous professional development. High school teachers expressed the need for these trainings to continue integrating technology using up-to-date technology tools. Rethinking science professional development is one potential form of social change.


GeroScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alex Molassiotis ◽  
Stephen W. H. Kwok ◽  
Angela Y. M. Leung ◽  
Stefanos Tyrovolas

Abstract The needs of the aging populations are putting increasing burden on healthcare particularly in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), which is the home of aging economies such as Hong Kong and Japan alongside rapid increases in older people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, little is known about the associations between sociodemographic factors, disease burden, and life expectancy in WPR. The current study conducted secondary analysis on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) estimates of populations aged 70 years and older in WPR countries between 1995 and 2019. Correlation tests, linear mixed regressions and generalized additive mixture models were run to examine the associations of interest. Unsupervised machine learning was conducted to segment the data automatically, at cluster analysis. The sociodemographic development index was found an important factor to the disease burden in terms of Years Lived with Disability (YLD) rate and mortality rate among older adults. YLD rate and mortality rate of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) attributable to different risk groups were significant contributors to higher expectation of Lost Healthy Years (LHE) and shorter life expectancy respectively in the context of rising YLD rate, particularly in LMICs. Three clusters of countries with similar characteristics were identified. NCDs were the most significant contributors to shorter life expectancy within which the time living in poor health did not improve. Better management of NCDs in aging populations should be emphasized in all countries. The country clusters may help in a more regional strategic planning.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 641
Author(s):  
Runhan Wu ◽  
Kamran Ishfaq ◽  
Siraj Hussain ◽  
Fahad Asmi ◽  
Ahmad Nabeel Siddiquei ◽  
...  

Cryptocurrencies have transgressed ever-changing economic trends in the global economy, owing to their conveyance, security, trust, and the ability to make transactions without the aid of formal institutions and governing bodies. However, the adoption of cryptocurrency remains low among stakeholders, including e-retailers. Thus, the current work explores the intentions of e-retailers in the Asia and Pacific region to adopt cryptocurrencies. This study considers the TAM-based SOR, with a combination of non-cognitive attributes (compatibility and convenience) proposed as stimuli for e-retailers to adopt the examined cryptocurrencies. The findings indicate that the proposed non-cognitive attributes are critical in determining e-retailers’ technostress (emotional state). Moreover, it was found that technostress among e-retailers profoundly impacts their intentions to adopt cryptocurrency in business settings. Meanwhile, regulatory support communication can be used to help regulatory bodies and governing institutions control the future economy worldwide. The proposed study offers significant theoretical and practical contributions through its investigation of e-retailers’ intentions to adopt cryptocurrency for the first time in the particular context of technostress and regulatory support.


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