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Author(s):  
Sidnei R. de Marchi ◽  
Ricardo F. Marques ◽  
Prissila P. dos S. Araújo ◽  
Ilgner T. D. Silva ◽  
Dagoberto Martins

ABSTRACT The presence of weeds as a consequence of pasture degradation is one of the main problems facing livestock worldwide. Thus, knowing the interference aspects and the appropriate time for weed management is essential for applying a particular control measure. This research aimed to study the weed interference on the morphostructural and nutritional quality of the Marandu palisade grass in conditions of renewal or maintenance of pasture. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design, with four replicates and treatments consisted of eight growth periods of coexistence between Marandu palisade grass and weeds (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 days). Forage grass was characterized at the end of the experimental period, corresponding to 120 days of coexistence, and the main morphostructural and nutritional components were determined. Under the renewal or maintenance process, the weeds interfere in the morphostructural and nutritional quality of pasture areas with Marandu palisade grass. In vitro organic matter digestibility of Marandu palisade grass is negatively influenced by weeds, suggesting that control measures for renewal or maintenance areas should be adopted within 24 and 18 days of coexistence, respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 713-726
Author(s):  
Flávio Gomes Barcelos ◽  
◽  
Taís Ramalho dos Anjos ◽  
Leila Auxiliadora de Arruda Alencar ◽  
Vinicius Silva Castro ◽  
...  

Mycobacterium bovis is a bacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that causes tuberculosis in cattle and in other domestic and wild animals, as well as in humans. Disease control measures are carried out by slaughtering animals tested positive in the intradermal tuberculinization test and sanitation of their original living spaces, in addition to epidemiological surveillance carried out through the sanitary inspection of bovine carcasses in slaughterhouses. In the latter, official inspection services collect samples from macroscopic lesions suspected of bovine tuberculosis, which are then sent for laboratory analysis. Knowledge concerning the variables associated with the occurrence of M. bovis can aid in decision-making regarding control and disease eradication efforts. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for a positive M. bovis diagnosis in suspected bovine tuberculosis lesions obtained during epidemiological surveillance activities in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 105 suspicious lesions were analyzed using the Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nested q-PCR) method, of which 14 (13.33%) tested positive for M. bovis. Univariate and bivariate statistical analyses indicated that the variable “animal slaughter” was the only risk factor presenting statistical significance associated with the diagnosis of M. bovis (p < 0.05), demonstrating that macroscopic lesions suspected as being caused by bovine tuberculosis from animals with an in vivo diagnosis were 2.82 - fold more likely to result in a positive M. bovis diagnosis by molecular tests.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
N. Rashid ◽  
M. Shafee ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
A. Samad ◽  
S. A. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-77
Author(s):  
B. Salisu ◽  
S.M. Anua ◽  
W.R. Wan Ishak ◽  
N. Mazlan

The warm weather and high relative humidity in Malaysia are ideal for the survival and proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi leading to a high rate of stored product contamination. This study was conducted to enumerate and characterise the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with commonly consumed food grains in Kelantan, Malaysia. The fungal bioburden and fungal identification from forty-four composite food samples comprising 11 samples each of maize, wheat, rice, and peanuts from open markets in Kelantan, Malaysia, were determined using standard mycological techniques. A total of 115 mould fungal isolates belonging to 12 species were isolated, of which Aspergillus flavus (17.39%), A. versicolor (13.04%), A. felis (12.17%), Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (11.3%), Penicillium cheresanum (11.3%) and P. chrysogenum (8.7%), were predominant. Peanuts were the most contaminated (9.7×105 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g) followed by maize (7.5×105 ± 1.8×106 CFU/g), wheat (1.9×105 ± 2.6×105 CFU/g), and rice (9.9×104 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g). The levels of the mycotoxigenic fungi in peanut, maize, and wheat were above the permissible limit of 102 CFU/g set by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and 102 to 105 CFU/g set by the International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods, signifying that they are unsafe for use as food or feed ingredients. Hence, there is a need for more stringent control measures.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rrezart Halili ◽  
Jeta Bunjaku ◽  
Bujar Gashi ◽  
Teuta Hoxha ◽  
Agron Kamberi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Many studies examined the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within populations using seroprevalence. Healthcare workers are a high-risk population due to patient contact, and studies are needed to examine seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. Our study investigates the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff at primary healthcare institutions in Prishtina, and factors associated with seroprevalence. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey including SARS-CoV-2 serological testing and questionnaires with primary healthcare workers from primary healthcare facilities in the Prishtina, the capital city of Kosovo. We calculated prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and of self-reported positive PCR test among primary healthcare workers, as well as crude and adjusted ORs for explanatory factors. Results Eighty-three of the healthcare workers (17.47%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies IgG or IgM, while 231 (48.63%) either had antibodies or a previous positive PCR test. Odds of seropositivity were affected by male gender (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20, 3.61), and infected family members (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.25, 5.79) of healthcare workers. Higher education, being part of larger families and having infected family members gave higher odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity. Other healthcare workers had lower odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity than physicians. Conclusion Over 17% of healthcare workers were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and close to half of them were either seropositive or PCR self-reported positive test. Several factors are associated with decreased and increased odds for such outcomes. These findings should be explored further and addressed to Kosovo policy makers, and assist them to intensify vaccination efforts, and maintain control measures until we achieve herd immunity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Ali Sweedan ◽  
Mashhour hussein Al Qannas ◽  
Fahad Hamad Balharith ◽  
Sayed Abdelsabour Kinawy ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic extended to reach most countries in the globe during a few months. The preparedness of healthcare institutions and healthcare workers is crucial for applying effective prevention and control measures. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to assess HCWs and institutional preparedness in facing the new emerging coronavirus (COVID-19) infection at the early phase of the pandemic, and to explore HCWs' risk perception, concerns, and risk acceptance. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted among hospital HCWs in the main hospitals, in Najran city, southwestern Saudi Arabia, at the early phase of the pandemic, during March-April, 2020. RESULTS Overall, 563 completed questionnaires were received (382; 67.9% from KKH and 181; 32.1% from NNH). The majority were females (78.6%), nurses constituted (74.7%). The age range of the participants was 20-63 years, with the mean age of physicians 36.5±9.15 years and 31.8±7.48 years for nurses. Among participants, 65.8% attended training program/s for COVID-19 infection, of whom 69.9% were satisfied with this training. Almost all (97.4%) of the participants reported reading the official circulars assigned for guidelines, case definition and, infection control measures regarding COVID-19 infection, 97.1% received basic infection control training, 98.9% checked for the best-fitted size of N95 mask, and 89.4% were influenza vaccinated. Of the participants, 82.6% reported that they have sufficient knowledge about t COVID-19 pandemic, 82.0% being confident that they can protect themselves and their patients when dealing with COVID-19 cases, 92.9% reported that they understand the risk of COVID-19 infection for patients and healthcare staff and 83.2% reported agreement of accepting the risk of getting the infection being a part of their job. The study participants attained a 20.26±2.60 knowledge score on a scale of 26 maximum points (77.9%), of them 74.5% attained 20 points or more (>75%) indicating good working knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. Exploring the participants’ perception about the preparedness of their institutions towards the COVID-19 pandemic, 70.8% agreed that institutional precautionary measures to COVID-19 in the workplace are sufficient, 71.6% agreed that all personal protective equipment (PPE) are provided and always available in the workplace, and 90.6% mentioned that the staff in their institutions have had adequate training. Exploring risk perception and the affective aspect of the pandemic on HCWs, 79.0%, 35.2%, 64.2% of the participants felt that they, their families, and the Najran community are at high risk of getting an infection with the COVID-19 virus respectively, and 54.7% and 55.1% were concerned about their personal and family health respectively. CONCLUSIONS Findings revealed good knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic among HCWs in Najran hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Concerns and worries were expressed regard working with the highly infectious COVID-19 patients. Participants appreciated important aspects of institutional preparedness. Experience gained from the previous MERS-CoV outbreak may explain good knowledge, risk acceptance, self-efficacy, and good and rapid institutional preparedness at the early stage of the pandemic.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 967
Author(s):  
Ana Fonseca ◽  
Isabel Abreu ◽  
Maria João Guerreiro ◽  
Nelson Barros

The adequate assessment and management of indoor air quality in healthcare facilities is of utmost importance for patient safety and occupational health purposes. This study aims to identify the recent trends of research on the topic through a systematic literature review following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) methodology. A total of 171 articles published in the period 2015–2020 were selected and analyzed. Results show that there is a worldwide growing research interest in this subject, dispersed in a wide variety of scientific journals. A textometric analysis using the IRaMuTeQ software revealed four clusters of topics in the sampled articles: physicochemical pollutants, design and management of infrastructures, environmental control measures, and microbiological contamination. The studies focus mainly on hospital facilities, but there is also research interest in primary care centers and dental clinics. The majority of the analyzed articles (85%) report experimental data, with the most frequently measured parameters being related to environmental quality (temperature and relative humidity), microbiological load, CO2 and particulate matter. Non-compliance with the WHO guidelines for indoor air quality is frequently reported. This study provides an overview of the recent literature on this topic, identifying promising lines of research to improve indoor air quality in healthcare facilities.


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