Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.
Mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important short-duration grain legume widely known for its nutritional, soil ameliorative, and cropping system intensification properties. This study aims at evaluating genetic diversity among mung bean genotypes and detecting genomic regions associated with various yield attributing traits and yellow mosaic disease (YMD) resistance by association mapping. A panel of 80 cultivars and advanced breeding lines was evaluated for 10 yield-related and YMD resistance traits during kharif (monsoon) and summer seasons of 2018–2019 and 2019–2020. A total of 164 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were initially screened, out of which 89 were found polymorphic which generated 317 polymorphic alleles with an average of 3.56 alleles per SSR locus. The number of alleles at each locus varied from 2 to 7. The population genetic structure analysis grouped different genotypes in three major clusters and three genetically distinct subpopulations (SPs) (i.e., SP-1, SP-2, and SP-3) with one admixture subpopulation (SP-4). Both cluster and population genetic structure analysis categorized the advanced mung bean genotypes in a single group/SP and the released varieties in other groups/SPs, suggesting that the studied genotypes may have common ancestral history at some level. The population genetic structure was also in agreement with the genetic diversity analysis. The estimate of the average degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present at the genome level in 80 mung bean genotypes unveiled significant LD blocks. Over the four seasons, 10 marker-trait associations were observed significant for YMD and four seed yield (SY)-related traits viz., days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, and number of pods per plant using the mixed linear model (MLM) method. These associations may be useful for marker-assisted mung bean yield improvement programs and YMD resistance.