Genetic Diversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
Miranda M. Mitchell ◽  
Amanda Vicente-Santos ◽  
Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera ◽  
Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar ◽  
Thomas R. Gillespie

Mojtaba Hosseini ◽  
Mohsen Yassaie ◽  
Mohammad Hassan Rashed-Mohassel ◽  
Reza Ghorbani ◽  
Ali Niazi

Kimberley G. Barrett ◽  
Geneviève Amaral ◽  
Melanie Elphinstone ◽  
Malcolm L. McAdie ◽  
Corey S. Davis ◽  

AbstractCaptive breeding is often a last resort management option in the conservation of endangered species which can in turn lead to increased risk of inbreeding depression and loss of genetic diversity. Thus, recording breeding events via studbook for the purpose of estimating relatedness, and facilitating mating pair selection to minimize inbreeding, is common practice. However, as founder relatedness is often unknown, loss of genetic variation and inbreeding cannot be entirely avoided. Molecular genotyping is slowly being adopted in captive breeding programs, however achieving sufficient resolution can be challenging in small, low diversity, populations. Here, we evaluate the success of the Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis; VIM; among the worlds most endangered mammals) captive breeding program in preventing inbreeding and maintaining genetic diversity. We explored the use of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of microsatellite regions to assay greater genetic variation in both captive and wild populations than traditional length-based fragment analysis. Contrary to other studies, this method did not considerably increase diversity estimates, suggesting: (1) that the technique does not universally improve resolution, and (2) VIM have exceedingly low diversity. Studbook estimates of pairwise relatedness and inbreeding in the current population were weakly, but positively, correlated to molecular estimates. Thus, current studbooks are moderately effective at predicting genetic similarity when founder relatedness is known. Finally, we found that captive and wild populations did not differ in allelic frequencies, and conservation efforts to maintain diversity have been successful with no significant decrease in diversity over the last three generations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Pei Lin ◽  
Zheng-Fei Yan ◽  
MooChang Kook ◽  
Chang-Tian Li ◽  
Tae-Hoo Yi

The genus Pleurotus is one of the most widely cultivated and edible mushrooms with various cultivators. Three molecular characteristics were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 132 tested samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed five clades for tested samples of the genus Pleurotus by the combined ITS and LSU sequences with strong bootstraps and Bayesian posterior probability supports. A total of 94 polymorphic fragments ranging from 10 to 100 bp were observed by using an intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The DNA fragment pattern showed that P. ostreatus cultivator (strain P9) was clearly distinguished from wild strain based on their clear banding profiles produced. DNA GC content of the genus Pleurotus varied from 55.6 mol% to 43.3 mol%. Their chemical composition was also determined, including sugar, amino acid, polar lipid, mycolic acid, quinone, and fatty acid, which presented some high homogeneity. Most of the tested samples contained mycolic acid; glucose and arabinose as the main sugars; aspartic acid, arginine, lysine, tyrosine, and alanine as the main amino acids; and C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, anteiso-C14:0, and summed feature 8 as the main fatty acids. In addition, their polar lipid profiles were investigated for the first time, which significantly varied among Pleurotus species. The genus Pleurotus contained menaquinone-6 as the sole respiratory quinone, which showed a significant difference with that of its closely related genera. These results of this study demonstrated that the combined method above could efficiently differentiate each Pleurotus species and thus be considered an efficient tool for surveying the genetic diversity of the genus Pleurotus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 70
Jéssica S. Cardoso ◽  
Sâmela S. Mendes ◽  
Ana Maria Waldschmidt ◽  
Maria Aparecida Castellani ◽  
Iara S. Joachim-Bravo ◽  

This study aimed at determining the population genetic structure of Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) in North-eastern Brazil, so as to improve our understanding of the viability of the inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers in Brazilian populations, along with inferences on population genetic composition which can be used in management programs. For this, ISSR markers were used in groups collected from four municipalities in this region. Primers were polymorphic, revealing moderate expected heterozigosity, with 80% of the variation occurring within populations and moderate structure. Bayesian analysis revealed K = 3, consistent with pairwise FST and indicating low structure between Barra do Choça and Planalto, and moderate structure between Caraíbas and Planalto. Data indicated high diversity, suggesting two interpretations: the analyzed populations arose from a single population and are now under structuring processes, or populations had different origins, but are currently connected by gene flow. Thus, ISSR primers were affective in obtaining information about genetic structure of C. capitata populations in North-eastern Brazil, as evidenced by high polymorphism and separation or grouping of populations according to their allelic compositions. Furthermore, this paper provides useful information for understanding the genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow of C. capitata populations in this region and developing regional strategies for the control and management of the species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 101 (1) ◽  
Allo A. Dido ◽  
M. S. R. Krishna ◽  
Ermias Assefa ◽  
Dawit T. Degefu ◽  
B. J. K. Singh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno ◽  
Sara Teresa Méndez-Cruz ◽  
Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres ◽  
Carlos Cedillo-Peláez ◽  
Dolores Correa ◽  

Abstract Background Currently, more than 300 genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have been described throughout the world, demonstrating its wide genetic diversity. The SAG3 locus is one of the genes included in the genotyping panel of this parasite. It is associated with its virulence since it participates during the invasion process of the host cells. Therefore, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis were used to deepen the understanding of the SAG3 locus genetic diversity of T. gondii in blood samples from feral cats. Results Six different SAG3 sequences were detected, five of which were detected in one feline. Three sequences were first reported here; one of them was an intragenic recombinant. In the cladogram, four out of ten SAG3 sequences did not share nodes with others reported worldwide. Conclusions Cloning and sequencing of samples with more than one restriction pattern by PCR-RFLP were very helpful tools to demonstrate the presence of more than three genotypes of T. gondii in the blood of feral cats from southeastern Mexico. This suggests a potential mixed infection of multiple T. gondii strains and high genetic diversity of the parasites in felines in this tropical region of Mexico.

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