Genetic Diversity
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Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 374 (6565) ◽  
pp. 333-336
Erin Foster ◽  
Jane Watson ◽  
Matthew A. Lemay ◽  
M. Tim Tinker ◽  
James A. Estes ◽  

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1401
Nikita Chertov ◽  
Yulia Vasilyeva ◽  
Andrei Zhulanov ◽  
Yulia Nechaeva ◽  
Svetlana Boronnikova ◽  

The Ural Mountains and the West Eurasian Taiga forests are one of the most important centers of genetic diversity for Larix sibirica Ledeb. Forest fragmentation negatively impacts forest ecosystems, especially due to the impact of their intensive use on the effects of climate change. For the preservation and rational use of forest genetic resources, it is necessary to carefully investigate the genetic diversity of the main forest-forming plant species. The Larix genus species are among the most widespread woody plants in the world. The Siberian larch (Larix sibirica, Pinaceae) is found in the forest, forest-tundra, tundra (Southern part), and forest-steppe zones of the North, Northeast, and partly East of the European part of Russia and in Western and Eastern Siberia; in the Urals, the Siberian larch is distributed fragmentarily. In this study, eight pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to analyse the genetic diversity and population structure of 15 Siberian larch populations in the Urals. Natural populations in the Urals exhibit indicators of genetic diversity comparable to those of Siberia populations (expected heterozygosity, He = 0.623; expected number of alleles, Ne = 4017; observed heterozygosity, Ho = 0.461). Genetic structure analysis revealed that the examined populations are relatively highly differentiated (Fst = 0.089). Using various algorithms for determining the spatial genetic structure, the examined populations formed three groups according to geographical location. The data obtained are required for the development of species conservation and restoration programs, which are especially important in the Middle Urals, which is the region with strong forest fragmentation.

2021 ◽  
Emira Cherif ◽  
Fatou Seck Thiam ◽  
Mohammad Salma ◽  
Fabienne Justy ◽  

Motivation: Amplicon-based nanopore sequencing is increasingly used for molecular surveillance during epidemics (e.g. ZIKA, EBOLA) or pandemics (e.g. SARS-CoV-2). However, there is still a lack of versatile and easy-to-use tools that allow users with minimal bioinformatics skills to perform the main steps of downstream analysis, from quality testing to SNPs effect to phylogenetic analysis. Results: Here, we present ONTdeCIPHER, an amplicon-based Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) sequencing pipeline to analyze the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogenes. Our pipeline integrates 13 bioinformatics tools. With a single command line and a simple configuration file, users can pre-process their data and obtain the sequencing statistics, reconstruct the consensus genome, identify variants and their effects for each viral isolate, infer lineage and, finally perform multi-sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2961
Hiba Ali Hassan ◽  
Guillaume Domain ◽  
Gaia Cecilia Luvoni ◽  
Rana Chaaya ◽  
Ann Van Soom ◽  

Canine and feline epididymal semen provide an additional source of gametes to preserve the genetics of valuable breeding dogs and tomcats, especially for those that fail to ejaculate, need castration as a therapy or die unexpectedly. Moreover, since it is quite common to perform castration of non-breeding dogs and cats, the development of a gene bank of epididymal semen collected after castration would greatly contribute to increase the genetic diversity in dogs and cats. Collection and cryopreservation of epididymal semen necessitates a full understanding of the function of the epididymis and of the characteristics of epididymal spermatozoa as opposed to ejaculated semen. During collection of epididymal semen, specific factors may have a negative effect on epididymal semen quality and freezability. Accordingly, the elimination of these triggers could enhance epididymal semen freezability and consequently positively influence post-thaw semen quality and outcome for different ARTs.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258610
Xin Peng ◽  
Hantang Wang ◽  
Chunhui Guo ◽  
Ping Hu ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  

Leptocybe invasa Fisher et LaSalle is a global invasive pest that seriously damages Eucalyptus plants. Studying the genetic diversity, genetic structure and introgression hybridization of L. invasa in China is of great significance for clarifying the breeding strategy, future invasion and diffusion trends of L. invasa in China and developing scientific prevention and control measures. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of 320 L. invasa female adults from 14 geographic populations in China were conducted using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci (SSRs) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences (COIs). (1) The Bayesian phylogenetic tree and haplotype network diagram showed that only haplotype Hap3 existed in L. invasa lineage B in China, while haplotypes Hap1 and Hap2 existed in lineage A, among which haplotype Hap2 was found for the first time. The nucleotide and haplotype diversities of lineage A were higher than those of lineage B. (2) The SSR genetic diversity of the Wuzhou Guangxi, Ganzhou Jiangxi and Panzhihua Sichuan populations was higher than that of the other 11 populations, and the SSR genetic diversity of lineage A was higher than that of lineage B. (3) The AMOVA analysis of mitochondrial COI data showed that 75.55% of the variation was among populations, and 99.86% of the variation was between lineages, while the AMOVA analysis of nuclear SSR data showed that 35.26% of the variation was among populations, and 47.04% of the variation was between lineages. There were obvious differences in the sources of variation between the COI and SSR data. (4) The optimal K value of COI and SSR data in structure analysis was 2, and PCoA analysis also divided the dataset into two obvious categories. The UPMGA phylogenetic tree based on SSR data clustered 14 geographic species into two groups. The results of genetic structure analysis supported the existence of two lineages, A and B, in China. (5) Structural analysis showed that there was obvious introgressive hybridization in Wuzhou Guangxi, Ganzhou Jiangxi, Panzhihua Sichuan and other populations. These results suggest that lineage introgressive hybridization has occurred in the L. invasa population in China. The introgressive hybridization degree and genetic diversity of lineage A are obviously higher than those of lineage B. Lineage introgressive hybridization may be the driving force for further L. invasa invasion and diffusion in China in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11070
Katarzyna Bujak ◽  
Przemyslaw Decewicz ◽  
Joanna M. Rosinska ◽  
Monika Radlinska

Shewanella is a ubiquitous bacterial genus of aquatic ecosystems, and its bacteriophages are also isolated from aquatic environments (oceans, lakes, ice, and wastewater). In this study, the isolation and characterization of a novel virulent Shewanella phage vB_SspS_KASIA and the identification of three prophages of its host, Shewanella sp. M16, including a mitomycin-inducible Mu-like siphovirus, vB_SspS_MuM16-1, became the starting point for comparative analyses of phages infecting Shewanella spp. and the determination of their position among the known bacterial viruses. A similarity networking analysis revealed the high diversity of Shewanella phages in general, with vB_SspS_KASIA clustering exclusively with Colwellia phage 9A, with which it forms a single viral cluster composed of two separate viral subclusters. Furthermore, vB_SspS_MuM16-1 presented itself as being significantly different from the phages deposited in public databases, expanding the diversity of the known Mu-like phages and giving potential molecular markers for the identification of Mu-like prophages in bacterial genomes. Moreover, the functional analysis performed for vB_SspS_KASIA suggested that, despite the KASIA host, the M16 strain grows better in a rich medium and at 30 °C the phage replication cycle seems to be optimal in restrictive culture conditions mimicking their natural environment, the Zloty Stok gold and arsenic mine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andre C. Araujo ◽  
Paulo L. S. Carneiro ◽  
Hinayah R. Oliveira ◽  
Flavio S. Schenkel ◽  
Renata Veroneze ◽  

The level of genetic diversity in a population is inversely proportional to the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), leading to lower predictive ability of genomic breeding values (GEBVs) in high genetically diverse populations. Haplotype-based predictions could outperform individual SNP predictions by better capturing the LD between SNP and QTL. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy and bias of individual-SNP- and haplotype-based genomic predictions under the single-step-genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) approach in genetically diverse populations. We simulated purebred and composite sheep populations using literature parameters for moderate and low heritability traits. The haplotypes were created based on LD thresholds of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6. Pseudo-SNPs from unique haplotype alleles were used to create the genomic relationship matrix (G) in the ssGBLUP analyses. Alternative scenarios were compared in which the pseudo-SNPs were combined with non-LD clustered SNPs, only pseudo-SNPs, or haplotypes fitted in a second G (two relationship matrices). The GEBV accuracies for the moderate heritability-trait scenarios fitting individual SNPs ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 and with haplotypes from 0.17 to 0.54 in the most (Ne ≅ 450) and less (Ne < 200) genetically diverse populations, respectively, and the bias fitting individual SNPs or haplotypes ranged between −0.14 and −0.08 and from −0.62 to −0.08, respectively. For the low heritability-trait scenarios, the GEBV accuracies fitting individual SNPs ranged from 0.24 to 0.32, and for fitting haplotypes, it ranged from 0.11 to 0.32 in the more (Ne ≅ 250) and less (Ne ≅ 100) genetically diverse populations, respectively, and the bias ranged between −0.36 and −0.32 and from −0.78 to −0.33 fitting individual SNPs or haplotypes, respectively. The lowest accuracies and largest biases were observed fitting only pseudo-SNPs from blocks constructed with an LD threshold of 0.3 (p < 0.05), whereas the best results were obtained using only SNPs or the combination of independent SNPs and pseudo-SNPs in one or two G matrices, in both heritability levels and all populations regardless of the level of genetic diversity. In summary, haplotype-based models did not improve the performance of genomic predictions in genetically diverse populations.

BioTech ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 23
Oxana Khapilina ◽  
Ainur Turzhanova ◽  
Alevtina Danilova ◽  
Asem Tumenbayeva ◽  
Vladislav Shevtsov ◽  

Endemic species are especially vulnerable to biodiversity loss caused by isolation or habitat specificity, small population size, and anthropogenic factors. Endemic species biodiversity analysis has a critically important global value for the development of conservation strategies. The rare onion Allium ledebourianum is a narrow-lined endemic species, with natural populations located in the extreme climatic conditions of the Kazakh Altai. A. ledebourianum populations are decreasing everywhere due to anthropogenic impact, and therefore, this species requires preservation and protection. Conservation of this rare species is associated with monitoring studies to investigate the genetic diversity of natural populations. Fundamental components of eukaryote genome include multiple classes of interspersed repeats. Various PCR-based DNA fingerprinting methods are used to detect chromosomal changes related to recombination processes of these interspersed elements. These methods are based on interspersed repeat sequences and are an effective approach for assessing the biological diversity of plants and their variability. We applied DNA profiling approaches based on conservative sequences of interspersed repeats to assess the genetic diversity of natural A. ledebourianum populations located in the territory of Kazakhstan Altai. The analysis of natural A. ledebourianum populations, carried out using the DNA profiling approach, allowed the effective differentiation of the populations and assessment of their genetic diversity. We used conservative sequences of tRNA primer binding sites (PBS) of the long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons as PCR primers. Amplification using the three most effective PBS primers generated 628 PCR amplicons, with an average of 209 amplicons. The average polymorphism level varied from 34% to 40% for all studied samples. Resolution analysis of the PBS primers showed all of them to have high or medium polymorphism levels, which varied from 0.763 to 0.965. Results of the molecular analysis of variance showed that the general biodiversity of A. ledebourianum populations is due to interpopulation (67%) and intrapopulation (33%) differences. The revealed genetic diversity was higher in the most distant population of A. ledebourianum LD64, located on the Sarymsakty ridge of Southern Altai. This is the first genetic diversity study of the endemic species A. ledebourianum using DNA profiling approaches. This work allowed us to collect new genetic data on the structure of A. ledebourianum populations in the Altai for subsequent development of preservation strategies to enhance the reproduction of this relict species. The results will be useful for the conservation and exploitation of this species, serving as the basis for further studies of its evolution and ecology.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Atefeh Nouri ◽  
Maryam Golabadi ◽  
Alireza Etminan ◽  
Abdolmajid Rezaei ◽  
Ali Ashraf Mehrabi

Abstract Aegilops tauschii, the diploid progenitor of the wheat D-genome, is a valuable genetic resource for wheat breeders. In this study, we compared the efficiency of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) (as an arbitrary technique) and start codon targeted (SCoT) (as a gene-targeting technique) markers in determining the genetic diversity and population structure of 90 accessions of Ae. tauschii. SCoT markers indicated the highest values for polymorphism information content, marker index and effective multiplex ratio compared to ISSR markers. The total genetic diversity (Ht) and genetic diversity within populations (Hs) parameters were comparably modest for the two marker systems. The results of the analysis of molecular variance showed that the genetic variation within populations was significantly higher than among them (ISSR: 92 versus 8%; SCoT: 88 versus 12%). Furthermore, SCoT markers discovered a high level of genetic differentiation among populations than ISSRs (0.19 versus 0.05), while the amount of gene flow detected by ISSR was higher than SCoT (2.13 versus 8.62). Cluster analysis and population structure of SCoT and ISSR data divided all investigated accessions into two and four main clusters, respectively. Our results revealed that SCoT and ISSR fingerprinting could be used to further molecular analysis in Ae. tauschii and other wild species. The high-genetic variability found in this study also indicates the valuable genetic potential present in the investigated Ae. tauschii germplasm, which could be utilized for future genetic analysis and linkage mapping in breeding programmes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 471-480
Nguyen Hong Chien ◽  
Nguyen Thi Kim Linh ◽  
Trin Thi Kim My ◽  
Nguyen Xuan Truong ◽  
Nguyen Van Chung ◽  

Wax tree has been cultivated to get lacquer, a valuable source of material that is necessary for many industries and handicrafts. Evaluating not only phenotype but also genotype is essential in order to increase the efficiency of new breeding program. In this study, the genetic relationship at the molecular level of 90 wax trees collected in three regions, i.e., Tam Nong, Thanh Son (Phu Tho) and Chiem Hoa (Tuyen Quang), was analyzed by SSR and ScoT markers. The results revealed a significant diversity among the individuals, with similarity coefficient from 0.41 to 0.98. The sample group collected in Chiem Hoa was significantly different from that in Tam Nong. Most of samples which had a high level of genetic similarity, from 0.95 to 0.98, were pairs of samples at the same geographical origin. The high similarity degree of these samples is likely due to the practice of selecting seeds from high-yield wax tree to be kept for seeds. These results provide the necessary information for new wax tree breeding program.

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