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2022 ◽  
Vol 138 ◽  
pp. 30-40
Nina Svensson ◽  
Anna Norén ◽  
Oskar Modin ◽  
Karin Karlfeldt Fedje ◽  
Sebastien Rauch ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sarah Köbke ◽  
Hongxing He ◽  
Matthias Böldt ◽  
Haitao Wang ◽  
Mehmet Senbayram ◽  

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important bioenergy crop that contributes to the diversification of renewable energy supply and mitigation of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Typical oilseed rape crop management includes the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the incorporation of oilseed rape straw into soil after harvest. However, both management options risk increasing soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The aim of this 2-years field experiment was to identify the regulating factors of N cycling with emphasis on N2O emissions during the post-harvest period. As well as the N2O emission rates, soil ammonia (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−) contents, crop residue and seed yield were also measured. Treatments included variation of fertilizer (non-fertilized, 90 and 180 kg N ha−1) and residue management (straw remaining, straw removal). Measured N2O emission data showed large intra- and inter-annual variations ranging from 0.5 (No-fert + str) to 1.0 kg N2O-N ha−1 (Fert-180 + str) in 2013 and from 4.1 (Fert-90 + str) to 7.3 kg N2O-N ha−1 (No-fert + str) in 2014. Cumulative N2O emissions showed that straw incorporation led to no difference or slightly reduced N2O emissions compared with treatments with straw removal, while N fertilization has no effect on post-harvest N2O emissions. A process-based model, CoupModel, was used to explain the large annual variation of N2O after calibration with measured environmental data. Both modeled and measured data suggest that soil water-filled pore space and temperature were the key factors controlling post-harvest N2O emissions, even though the model seemed to show a higher N2O response to the N fertilizer levels than our measured data. We conclude that straw incorporation in oilseed rape cropping is environmentally beneficial for mitigating N2O losses. The revealed importance of climate in regulating the emissions implies the value of multi-year measurements. Future studies should focus on new management practices to mitigate detrimental effects caused by global warming, for example by using cover crops.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jinhui Wang ◽  
Yuxiang Lu ◽  
Wanxin Han ◽  
Lijun Fu ◽  
Xiaoqing Han ◽  

In August 2020, ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes (cv. Mianjiang) showing soft rot symptoms were observed in a field in Tayang Village, Fengrun District, Tangshan, Hebei Province (North China). The disease incidence in that field (15 ha in size) was more than 20%. Symptomatic rhizomes (brown and water-soaked) were surface-sterilized in 75% ethanol for 60 sec and then three successive rinses with sterile distilled water. Rhizomes were cut into pieces ca. 0.5 cm in length, and then were soaked in 500 µl 0.9% saline for 20 min. Aliquots (20 μl) of three tenfold dilutions of the tissue specimen soaking solution were plated onto the lysogeny broth (LB) medium. And LB plates were incubated at 28°C for 24 h. Five single colonies were picked from each LB plate and restreaked three times for purity. Endophytic bacteria were also isolated from asymptomatic rhizomes as control. The bacterial gDNA was extracted using the EasyPure Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit (TransGen Biotech, Beijing, China). The 16S rDNA region was amplified by PCR using the universal primer pair 27F/1492R (Weisburg et al. 1991) and sequenced. The results of BLASTN against NCBI nr of the 16S rDNA amplicons suggested that the most isolates (8/10) obtained from the rotten rhizomes belonged to the genus Pectobacterium, and few isolates (2/10) were Enterobacter spp.. Only Enterobacter spp. were isolated from asymptomatic rhizomes. Since all Pectobacterium isolates showed identical 16S rDNA sequence, thus, only two isolates were selected for further analysis. Pectobacterium isolates TS20HJ1 and TS20HJ2 (MZ853520, MZ853521) represent isolates from two plant individuals. To determine the species of the rhizome rot Pectobacterium isolates, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed with five housekeeping genes acnA, icdA, mdh, proA and rpoS (MZ994717-MZ994726) (Ma et al. 2007; Waleron et al. 2008), and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using RAxML v8.2.12 ( No sequence variation was observed at any MLSA locus between the two isolates. The result of phylogenetic analysis showed that the ginger rhizome isolates clustered with P. brasiliense type strain IBSBF1692T (Duarte et al. 2004; Nabhan et al. 2012). Ginger seedlings (cv. Mianjiang) were inoculated with the isolate TS20HJ1 by injecting 10 µl of bacterial suspensions (108 CFU·mL-1) into the rhizomes, or injected with 10 µl of 0.9% saline solution as control. The seedlings were grown at 28°C and 50% relative humidity. Ten days after inoculation, only the bacteria-inoculated rhizomes showed diseased symptoms resembling to those observed in the field. Bacterial colonies were obtained from the infected rhizomes and were identified with MLSA gene sequencing, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. P. brasiliense causes soft rot of a wide range of economically important crops (Oulghazi et al. 2021). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. brasiliense causing rhizome rot of ginger in China. The rhizome rot caused 20-25% yield loss on average in Tangshan region in 2020, which poses a significant threat to the local ginger farming. Further research on epidemiology and disease management options is needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Violah Jepkogei Kemboi ◽  
Carolyne Kipkoech ◽  
Moses Njire ◽  
Samuel Were ◽  
Mevin Kiprotich Lagat ◽  

Globally, Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) is ranked one of the most destructive bacterial pathogens inducing rapid and fatal wilting symptoms on tomatoes. Yield losses on tomatoes vary from 0 to 91% and most control measures are unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This study investigated the antimicrobial activities of chitin and chitosan extracted from black soldier fly (BSF) pupal exuviae against R. solanacearum. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular techniques were used to isolate and characterize R. solanacearum for in vitro pathogenicity test using disc diffusion technique. Our results revealed that BSF chitosan significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum when compared to treatments without chitosan. However, there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activities between BSF and commercial chitosan against R. solanacearum. Soil amended with BSF-chitin and chitosan demonstrated a reduction in bacterial wilt disease incidence by 30.31% and 34.95%, respectively. Whereas, disease severity was reduced by 22.57% and 23.66%, when inoculated tomato plants were subjected to soil amended with BSF chitin and chitosan, respectively. These findings have demonstrated that BSF pupal shells are an attractive renewable raw material for the recovery of valuable products (chitin and chitosan) with promising ability as a new type of eco-friendly control measure against bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. Further studies should explore integrated pest management options that integrate multiple components including insect-based chitin and chitosan to manage bacterial wilt diseases, contributing significantly to increased tomato production worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (3) ◽  
pp. 329-336
S. D. ATTRI ◽  

Water is one of the most limiting resources for agricultural production. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall, supplemental irrigation is often required to produce sustainable yield level. Timing and frequency of irrigation is one of the most important tactical decisions, which a farmer has to make to maximize profit from limited water availability. Computer based dynamic simulation models have the capability to assess management options under different environments to help in decision making. In this study, CRESS-Wheat Model  V-3.5 has been utilized to quantify the optimum utilization of limited water for popular wheat genotypes of NW India for operational use in Agrometeorological Advisory services with routinely measured weather parameters.

2022 ◽  

The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is an area in southeastern Australia that has the largest and most regulated river system in the country. Historically, it has been an area of conflict over water resources, with efforts to bring the different states together to negotiate water sharing since the early 1900s. In the 20th century, the focus of water policy was predominantly on water supply infrastructure: building large-scale dam storages, weirs, and other irrigation region infrastructure. However, increasing problems with both water quality and quantity from the 1970s onwards—such as acid sulphate soils, salinity, declines in vegetation health, and species loss—meant that more attention was turned to water demand management options. These included establishing formal water markets, trade liberalization, and water extraction caps. The National Water Initiative (2004) and the Water Act (2007) laid the groundwork in unbundling water and land ownership and created the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA). The MDBA was tasked with developing the MDB Plan (Basin Plan 2012) to readjust the balance between consumptive water use and the environment. The Basin Plan when implemented in 2012 aimed to return up to one third of consumptive water extraction to environmental use, making it one of the biggest reallocations of water to the environment in the world. It has predominantly used market-based approaches to do so. However, conflict over water sharing has remained a dominant feature of MDB water reform. Self-interest among states and irrigation interests have impacted environmental water recovery methods, resource expenditure, and allocation—subsequently weakening both the Basin Plan and water policy in general. Given current policy developments, there is real danger of targets not being met, and environmental sustainability being continually compromised. The ongoing issues of drought, climate change, and readdressing First Nations access to—and ownership of—water have emphasized distributional issues in water sharing. It is clear also that the Basin Plan has been wrongly blamed and misattributed for ongoing rural community declines, with current amendments and reductions in water reallocation targets a result of this. What is clear is that the Basin Plan is currently not the fully sustainable solution for water sharing that it set out to be. It will need to continually evolve, along with various institutions to support water governance and rural community economic development in general, to address existing overallocation and future climate challenges. The challenges of equity, rural community development, and distributional fairness lie firmly in the sphere of strong governance, high-quality data, and first-best economic and scientific policies.

2022 ◽  
Wulan Pusparini ◽  
Andi Cahyana ◽  
Hedley Grantham ◽  
Sean Maxwell ◽  
Carolina Soto-Navarro ◽  

Abstract As more ambitious protected area (PA) targets for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework is set beyond Aichi Target 11, new spatial prioritisation thinking is required to expand protected areas to maximise different environmental values. Our study focuses on the biodiversity and forest-rich Indonesian island of Sulawesi, which has a terrestrial PA network that covers 10% of the island. We run scenarios to identified areas outside the current PA network and their representativeness of conservation features. We use Marxan to investigate trade-offs in the design of a larger PA network with varying coverage targets (17%, 30%, and 50%) that prioritises forest area, karst ecosystem, and carbon value as conservation features. Our first scenario required PAs to be selected at all times, and it required larger areas to meet these targets than our second scenario, which did not include existing PAs. The vast Mekongga, Banggai, and Popayato-Paguat landscapes were consistently identified as high priorities for protection in the various scenarios. The final section of our analysis used a spatially explicit three-phase approach to achieve this through PA expansion, the creation of new PAs, and the creation of corridors to connect existing PAs. Our findings identified 13,039 km2 of priority areas to be included in the current PA network, potentially assisting Indonesia in meeting the post-2020 GBF target if our approach is replicated elsewhere across Indonesia as a national or sub-national analysis like this study. We discuss various land management options through OECMs and the costs to deliver this strategy.

2022 ◽  
Matthew Madewell ◽  
Rusty Feagin ◽  
Thomas Huff ◽  
Bill Balboa

Abstract Salt marshes can be vulnerable to reduced freshwater input. Reduced freshwater inflows, particularly during a hot or dry summer season, can be catastrophic for vegetation productivity, organic accretion and inorganic sedimentation, and the ability of a marsh to maintain a sustainable elevation facing relative sea level rise (RSLR). Unfortunately, it is challenging for scientists to obtain inflow records for ungauged watersheds and link them with historical trends of salt marsh loss. We sought to address this challenge in Big Boggy National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), a small watershed in East Matagorda Bay, Texas. Our objective was to link the quantity of freshwater inflow with salt marsh sustainability and recommend management actions for the NWR. We first explored land cover trends and found that this watershed lost more than one-third of its low marsh since 1953. We then measured the streamflow into and out of the watershed, created a water budget, and modeled historical and future inflows from 1953 to 2100. Freshwater inflows have been increasing on average since 1953, but a combination of RSLR, sediment starvation, and punctuated seasonal droughts are likely responsible for the loss of salt marsh. We also estimated supplemental water needs during potential droughts out to 2100. We conclude that managers cannot fundamentally alter the accretion versus RSLR balance in this basin except by modifying freshwater input. Thus, during droughts, they should focus on providing these inputs and avoiding vegetation loss. Our work points to both water purchases and land management options that can achieve this goal.

Benjamin Medina ◽  
Daniela Molena

We present the case of a patient who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma after a previous laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Bariatric surgery has emerged as the most effective treatment option for weight loss and obesity-related diseases; however, sleeve gastrectomy promotes gastroesophageal reflux and leads to Barrett’s esophagus in a substantial portion of patients. The natural history of Barrett’s esophagus in these patients is unknown, and active surveillance is recommended until the incidence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in this population is clarified. Management options for these patients include conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although esophagectomy in patients who have previously undergone sleeve gastrectomy may require an alternative conduit, the remnant stomach can be used in carefully selected patients. Here, we review the different weight loss procedures, their effect on gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus, and the treatment options for patients with esophageal cancer after sleeve gastrectomy. We report the use of preoperative coil embolization as a means of vascular preconditioning before successful use of a gastric conduit.

Megan E. Gregory ◽  
Sarah R. MacEwan ◽  
Alice A. Gaughan ◽  
Laura J. Rush ◽  
Jonathan R. Powell ◽  

Although COVID-19 vaccines are widely available in the U.S. and much of the world, many have chosen to forgo this vaccination. Emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, despite their role on the frontlines and interactions with COVID-positive patients, are not immune to vaccine hesitancy. Via a survey conducted in April 2021, we investigated the extent to which first responders in the U.S. trusted various information sources to provide reliable information about COVID-19 vaccines. Those vaccinated generally trusted healthcare providers as a source of information, but unvaccinated first responders had fairly low trust in this information source—a group to which they, themselves, belong. Additionally, regardless of vaccination status, trust in all levels of government, employers, and their community as sources of information was low. Free-response explanations provided some context to these findings, such as preference for other COVID-19 management options, including drugs proven ineffective. A trusted source of COVID-19 vaccination information is not readily apparent. Individuals expressed a strong desire for the autonomy to make vaccination decisions for themselves, as opposed to mandates. Potential reasons for low trust, possible solutions to address them, generalizability to the broader public, and implications of low trust in official institutions are discussed.

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