This paper reports four new species of the primitively segmented spider genus Songthela from Chongqing Municipality, China, based on morphological characters of both males and females: S. jinyun sp. nov., S. longbao sp. nov., S. serriformis sp. nov. and S. wangerbao sp. nov. We also provide the GenBank accession codes of mitochondrial DNA barcode gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), for the holotype of four new species for future identification.
AbstractAge-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a complex multifactorial disorder. Studies in animals, including mitochondria-mutator mice, and in human suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial disturbance play an important role in the pathoetiology of ARHL. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are populations with genetically similar traits, and they have been reported to affect the mitochondrial function of oxidative phosphorylation. To gain further insights into the relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes and the susceptibility to cochlear aging, in this study, we aimed to elucidate how the differences in mtDNA haplogroups may affect ARHL development in Japanese general population. We focused on early onset ARHL, as the same mtDNA haplogroup can show either a negative or positive effect on systemic co-morbidities of ARHL that appear later in life. A total of 1167 participants of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were surveyed in 2014, and 12 major haplotype groups (D4a, D4b, D5, G1, G2, M7a, M7b, A, B4, B5, N9, and F) were selected for the analysis. A total of 698 subjects aged 30 to 65 years were included in the statistical analysis, and the hearing loss group consisted of 112 males (40.3%) and 111 females (26.4%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the male subjects belonging to haplogroup A had a significantly increased risk of hearing loss, whereas the female subjects belonging to haplogroup N9 had a significantly decreased risk of hearing loss. These results suggested that the mtDNA haplogroup may be an indicator for future risk of morbidity associated with ARHL.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) mutations are known to participate in the development and progression of some CVD. Moreover, specific types of mitochondria-mediated CVD have been discovered, such as MIEH (maternally inherited essential hypertension) and maternally inherited CHD (coronary heart disease). Maternally inherited mitochondrial CVD is caused by certain mutations in the mtDNA, which encode structural mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial tRNA. In this review, we focus on recently identified mtDNA mutations associated with CVD (coronary artery disease and hypertension). Additionally, new data suggest the role of mtDNA mutations in Brugada syndrome and ischemic stroke, which before were considered only as a result of mutations in nuclear genes. Moreover, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA involvement in the development of the disease.
Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) is an accessible blood-based measurement believed to capture underlying mitochondrial function. The specific biological processes underpinning its regulation, and whether those processes are causative for disease, is an area of active investigation.Methods: We developed a novel method for array-based mtDNA-CN estimation suitable for biobank-scale studies, called 'AutoMitoC'. We applied AutoMitoC to 395,781 UKBiobank study participants and performed genome and exome-wide association studies, identifying novel common and rare genetic determinants. Finally, we performed two-sample Mendelian Randomization to assess whether genetically low mtDNA-CN influenced select mitochondrial phenotypes.Results: Overall, genetic analyses identified 71 loci for mtDNA-CN, which implicated several genes involved in rare mtDNA depletion disorders, dNTP metabolism, and the mitochondrial central dogma. Rare variant analysis identified SAMHD1 mutation carriers as having higher mtDNA-CN (beta=0.23 SDs; 95% CI, 0.18- 0.29; P=2.6x10-19), a potential therapeutic target for patients with mtDNA depletion disorders, but at increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.91; 95% CI, 1.52-2.40; P=2.7x10-8). Finally, Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a causal effect of low mtDNA-CN on dementia risk (OR=1.94 per 1 SD decrease in mtDNA-CN; 95% CI, 1.55-2.32; P=7.5x10-4).Conclusions: Altogether, our genetic findings indicate that mtDNA-CN is a complex biomarker reflecting specific mitochondrial processes related to mtDNA regulation, and that these processes are causally related to human diseases.Funding: No funds supported this specific investigation. Awards and positions supporting authors include: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Doctoral Award (MC, PM); CIHR Post-Doctoral Fellowship Award (RM); Wellcome Trust Grant number: 099313/B/12/A; Crasnow Travel Scholarship; Bongani Mayosi UCT-PHRI Scholarship 2019/2020 (TM); Wellcome Trust Health Research Board Irish Clinical Academic Training (ICAT) Programme Grant Number: 203930/B/16/Z (CJ); European Research Council COSIP Grant Number: 640580 (MO); E.J. Moran Campbell Internal Career Research Award (MP); CISCO Professorship in Integrated Health Systems and Canada Research Chair in Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology (GP).
Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the chronic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus caused by progressive microangiopathy. Various types of risk factors can affect the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, one of which is mitochondrial DNA mutations in the tRNAleu A3243G gene that is common in T2DM. This study was conducted with the aim to identify whether the mutation of the tRNAleu A3243G gene acts as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in T2DM patients in Bali.
Material and Methods: This study used a case control design with 35 T2DM patients with diabetic retinopathy and 35 T2DM patients without diabetic retinopathy. The techniques used to identify these mutations are PCR and DNA sequencing.
Results: Based on the results obtained, no mutations were found in the tRNAleu A3243G gene in the entire sample. Therefore, the relationship analysis of the two variables cannot be identified.
Conclusions: Mutations of the tRNAleu A3243G gene that were not successfully identified in this study can be concluded not play a role as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetes Mellitus, tRNAleu Gene Mutation, Mitochondrial DNA.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious dose-limiting side effect of several first-line chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, oxaliplatin and bortezomib, for which no predictive marker is currently available. We have previously shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and maintenance of CIPN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels and complex I enzyme activity as blood biomarkers for CIPN. Real-time qPCR was used to measure mtDNA levels in whole blood collected from chemotherapy- and vehicle-treated rats at three key time-points of pain-like behaviour: prior to pain development, at the peak of mechanical hypersensitivity and at resolution of pain-like behaviour. Systemic oxaliplatin significantly increased mtDNA levels in whole blood prior to pain development. Furthermore, paclitaxel- and bortezomib-treated animals displayed significantly higher levels of mtDNA at the peak of mechanical hypersensitivity. Mitochondrial complex I activity in whole blood was assessed with an ELISA-based Complex I Enzyme Activity Dipstick Assay. Complex I activity was not altered by any of the three chemotherapeutic agents, either prior to or during pain-like behaviour. These data demonstrate that blood levels of mtDNA are altered after systemic administration of chemotherapy. Oxaliplatin, in particular, is associated with higher mtDNA levels before animals show any pain-like behaviour, thus suggesting a potential role for circulating mtDNA levels as non-invasive predictive biomarker for CIPN.
Circulating cell‐free mitochondrial DNA (ccf‐mtDNA) is a damage‐associated molecular pattern that reflects cell stress responses and tissue damage, but little is known about ccf‐mtDNA in preeclampsia. The main objectives of this study were to determine (1) absolute concentrations of ccf‐mtDNA in plasma and mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and (2) forms of ccf‐mtDNA transport in blood from women with preeclampsia and healthy controls. In addition, we sought to establish the association between aberrance in circulating DNA‐related metrics, including ccf‐mtDNA and DNA clearance mechanisms, and the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia using bootstrapped penalized logistic regression.
Methods and Results
Absolute concentrations of ccf‐mtDNA were reduced in plasma from women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls (
≤0.02), while mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not differ between groups (
>0.05). While the pattern of reduced ccf‐mtDNA in patients with preeclampsia remained, DNA isolation from plasma using membrane lysis buffer resulted in 1000‐fold higher ccf‐mtDNA concentrations in the preeclampsia group (
=0.0014) and 430‐fold higher ccf‐mtDNA concentrations in the control group (
<0.0001). Plasma from women with preeclampsia did not induce greater Toll‐like receptor‐9–induced nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain enhancer of activated B cells‐dependent responses in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing the human
>0.05). Penalized regression analysis showed that women with preeclampsia were more likely to have lower concentrations of ccf‐mtDNA as well as higher concentrations of nuclear DNA and DNase I compared with their matched controls.
Women with preeclampsia have aberrant circulating DNA dynamics, including reduced ccf‐mtDNA concentrations and DNA clearance mechanisms, compared with gestational age–matched healthy pregnant women.
Circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) released upon cell injury or death stimulates diverse pattern recognition receptors to activate innate immune responses and initiate systemic inflammation. In this review, we discuss the temporal changes of ccf-mtDNA during pregnancy and its potential contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnancy complications.
A retrospective case control study was undertaken at the molecular biology department of a private center for reproductive medicine in order to determine whether any correlation exists between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of cleavage-stage preimplantation embryos and their developmental potential. A total of 69 couples underwent IVF treatment (averaged women age: 36.5, SD 4.9) and produced a total of 314 embryos. A single blastomere was biopsied from each embryo at the cleavage stage (day-3 post-fertilization) subjected to low-pass next generation sequencing (NGS), for the purpose of detecting aneuploidy. For each sample, the number of mtDNA reads obtained after analysis using NGS was divided by the number of reads attributable to the nuclear genome. The mtDNA copy number amount was found to be higher in aneuploid embryos than in those that were euploid (mean mtDNA ratio ± SD: 6.3 ± 7.5 versus 7.1 ± 5.8, p < 0.004; U Mann–Whitney test), whereas no statistically significant differences in mtDNA content were seen in relation to embryo morphology (6.6 ± 4.8 vs. 8.5 ± 13.6, p 0.09), sex (6.6 ± 4.1 vs. 6.2 ± 6.8, p 0.16), maternal age (6.9 ± 7.8 vs. 6.7 ± 4.5, p 0.14) or its ability to implant (7.4 ± 6.6 vs. 5.1 ± 4.6, p 0.18). The mtDNA content cannot serve as a useful biomarker at this point in development. However, further studies investigating both quantitative and qualitative aspects of mtDNA are still required to fully evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial DNA and human reproduction.