lepromatous leprosy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Zihao Mi ◽  
Zhenzhen Wang ◽  
Xiaotong Xue ◽  
Tingting Liu ◽  
Chuan Wang ◽  

AbstractLepromatous leprosy (L-LEP), caused by the massive proliferation of Mycobacterium leprae primarily in macrophages, is an ideal disease model for investigating the molecular mechanism of intracellular bacteria evading or modulating host immune response. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of both skin biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of L-LEP patients and healthy controls. In L-LEP lesions, we revealed remarkable upregulation of APOE expression that showed a negative correlation with the major histocompatibility complex II gene HLA-DQB2 and MIF, which encodes a pro-inflammatory and anti-microbial cytokine, in the subset of macrophages exhibiting a high expression level of LIPA. The exhaustion of CD8+ T cells featured by the high expression of TIGIT and LAG3 in L-LEP lesions was demonstrated. Moreover, remarkable enhancement of inhibitory immune receptors mediated crosstalk between skin immune cells was observed in L-LEP lesions. For PBMCs, a high expression level of APOE in the HLA-DRhighFBP1high monocyte subset and the expansion of regulatory T cells were found to be associated with L-LEP. These findings revealed the primary suppressive landscape in the L-LEP patients, providing potential targets for the intervention of intracellular bacteria caused persistent infections.

2022 ◽  
pp. 004947552110686
Pallavi Hegde ◽  
Deepti Jaiswal ◽  
Varsha M Shetty ◽  
Kanthilatha Pai ◽  
Raghavendra Rao

Reactions in leprosy represent sudden shift in the immunological response and are seen in 11–25% of affected patients. It can be seen before, during or after the completion of multidrug therapy (MDT). 1 Two types of reactions are recognized; Type 1 reaction (T1R), seen in borderline leprosy, affecting mainly skin and nerves; type 2 reaction (T2R) or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), seen in lepromatous leprosy, characterized by systemic features in addition to cutaneous lesions. Trophic ulcers and ulcerating ENL are well known entities while cutaneous ulceration in T1R is extremely rare; we describe an immune-competent woman with cutaneous ulceration as a presenting feature to highlight the need to recognize this entity at the earliest opportunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 3
Arunachalam Narayanan ◽  
Sankar Peethambaran Akshay

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
Mohammed Alfaragi ◽  
Faisal Ahmed ◽  
Waiel Osman ◽  
Islam Mustafa ◽  
Intisar Almustafi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 92 (4) ◽  
pp. 412-420
Fazalul Abideen ◽  
Swapna Balakrishnan ◽  
C. B. Sindhu ◽  
Sandhya George ◽  
Anita Sanker

Omar Iqbal ◽  
Marlyn P. Langford ◽  
Ashley B. Flowers ◽  
James L. Caldwell ◽  
Nicolas A. Zaunbrecher ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S782-S783
Paragkumar Patel ◽  
Christian Rojas-Moreno ◽  
Taylor Nelson ◽  
Araya Zaesim ◽  
Jon Dyer

Abstract Background Introduction: Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin/peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Of 216 new cases reported in the US in 2019, 70% were in FL, LA, TX, HI, CA, GA and NY. Leprosy is considered a zoonosis in the southern US with the nine-banded armadillo as a reservoir. There have been no reported autochthonous leprosy cases in Missouri. Methods Case: 55 y/o previously healthy male noted a new rash on his arm 2 years ago. Over time it spread to his extremities/torso. Skin biopsy showed a granulomatous infiltrate, suspected granuloma annulare, but it progressed despite appropriate therapy. He noted progressive numbness of the affected areas of skin and several regional nerve distributions. In the weeks prior to his initial visit he noted facial swelling, eyelid and ear induration, worsening fatigue, diffuse arthralgia, and some vision changes. His travel history is limited to Canada, Colorado and a brief vacation to the Texas/Mexico border (no notable outdoor exposure during the latter trip; no travel outside the country). He lives in rural Missouri where he is exposed to armadillos. His dogs frequently kill them and often bring them into the yard, rolling around on/in the dead carcasses which he disposes of. He typically wears gloves when handling them and has never consumed them. On exam he had diffuse purplish-red nummular infiltrated anesthetic papules and plaques diffusely distributed over the trunk and extremities. Distinct left ulnar neuropathy was noted. He exhibited leonine facies and infiltration of the bilateral helices. Repeat biopsy showed a granulomatous infiltrate with abundant acid-fast bacilli. DNA sequencing confirmed M. leprae. He was preventatively treated with prednisone and methotrexate to minimize immune reaction, and two weeks later began a regimen of monthly rifampin, minocycline, and moxifloxacin with an anticipated duration of 24 months. Results Diagnosis lepromatous leprosy with pre-treatment immune reaction. This is potentially the first case of autochthonous leprosy in Missouri. Providers should include Hansen’s disease in the differential diagnosis of patients with dermal eruption and cutaneous neurological symptoms to avoid delays in diagnosis/care. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
Patricia Penna ◽  
Robson Vital ◽  
Mariana Hacker ◽  
Ana Salles ◽  

Abstract Lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients have evidence of extensive peripheral nerve damage as soon as a diagnosis is made, but most of them have few or no symptoms related to peripheral neuropathy. Usually, they do not have the cardinal signal of leprosy neuritis. However, disability caused by peripheral nerve injuries has consequences throughout the entire life of these patients and the pathophysiological mechanisms of nerve damage are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of peripheral neuropathy in a group of LL patients in an attempt to understand the mechanisms of nerve damage. We evaluated medical records of 14 LL patients that had undergone a neurological evaluation at the beginning of Leprosy treatment then worsened at least 4 years after the end of treatment and underwent nerve biopsy. The symptoms at the beginning of treatment were compared with those at the time of the biopsy. Pain was a symptom in only one patient at the beginning and was a complaint in 9 patients by the time of biopsy. Neurological examination showed that the majority of patients already had alterations in medium and large caliber fibers at the beginning of the treatment, and pain increased by the time of biopsy, while neurological symptoms and signs deteriorated independently of the use of prednisone or thalidomide. Nerve Conduction Studies demonstrated that sensory nerves were the most affected. LL patients can develop a silent progressive degenerative peripheral neuropathy, which continues to develop despite high dose long term corticoid therapy.

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