intracellular bacteria
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Zihao Mi ◽  
Zhenzhen Wang ◽  
Xiaotong Xue ◽  
Tingting Liu ◽  
Chuan Wang ◽  

AbstractLepromatous leprosy (L-LEP), caused by the massive proliferation of Mycobacterium leprae primarily in macrophages, is an ideal disease model for investigating the molecular mechanism of intracellular bacteria evading or modulating host immune response. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of both skin biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of L-LEP patients and healthy controls. In L-LEP lesions, we revealed remarkable upregulation of APOE expression that showed a negative correlation with the major histocompatibility complex II gene HLA-DQB2 and MIF, which encodes a pro-inflammatory and anti-microbial cytokine, in the subset of macrophages exhibiting a high expression level of LIPA. The exhaustion of CD8+ T cells featured by the high expression of TIGIT and LAG3 in L-LEP lesions was demonstrated. Moreover, remarkable enhancement of inhibitory immune receptors mediated crosstalk between skin immune cells was observed in L-LEP lesions. For PBMCs, a high expression level of APOE in the HLA-DRhighFBP1high monocyte subset and the expansion of regulatory T cells were found to be associated with L-LEP. These findings revealed the primary suppressive landscape in the L-LEP patients, providing potential targets for the intervention of intracellular bacteria caused persistent infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Felicitas E. Flemming ◽  
Katrin Grosser ◽  
Martina Schrallhammer

The role of bacterial endosymbionts harbored by heterotrophic Paramecium species is complex. Obligate intracellular bacteria supposedly always inflict costs as the host is the only possible provider of resources. However, several experimental studies have shown that paramecia carrying bacterial endosymbionts can benefit from their infection. Here, we address the question which endosymbionts occur in natural paramecia populations isolated from a small lake over a period of 5 years and which factors might explain observed shifts and persistence in the symbionts occurrence. One hundred and nineteen monoclonal strains were investigated and approximately two-third harbored intracellular bacteria. The majority of infected paramecia carried the obligate endosymbiotic “Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila”, followed by Caedimonas varicaedens, and Holospora undulata. The latter was only detected in a single strain. While “Ca. M. polyxenophila” was observed in seven out of 13 samplings, C. varicaedens presence was limited to a single sampling occasion. After the appearance of C. varicaedens, “Ca. M. polyxenophila” prevalence dramatically dropped with some delay but recovered to original levels at the end of our study. Potential mechanisms explaining these observations include differences in infectivity, host range, and impact on host fitness as well as host competitive capacities. Growth experiments revealed fitness advantages for infected paramecia harboring “Ca. M. polyxenophila” as well as C. varicaedens. Furthermore, we showed that cells carrying C. varicaedens gain a competitive advantage from the symbiosis-derived killer trait. Other characteristics like infectivity and overlapping host range were taken into consideration, but the observed temporal persistence of “Ca. M. polyxenophila” is most likely explained by the positive effect this symbiont provides to its host.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010166
Thao Thanh Tran ◽  
Carmen D. Mathmann ◽  
Marcela Gatica-Andrades ◽  
Rachel F. Rollo ◽  
Melanie Oelker ◽  

A hallmark of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes pathogenesis is bacterial escape from maturing entry vacuoles, which is required for rapid bacterial replication in the host cell cytoplasm and cell-to-cell spread. The bacterial transcriptional activator PrfA controls expression of key virulence factors that enable exploitation of this intracellular niche. The transcriptional activity of PrfA within infected host cells is controlled by allosteric coactivation. Inhibitory occupation of the coactivator site has been shown to impair PrfA functions, but consequences of PrfA inhibition for L. monocytogenes infection and pathogenesis are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of PrfA with a small molecule inhibitor occupying the coactivator site at 2.0 Å resolution. Using molecular imaging and infection studies in macrophages, we demonstrate that PrfA inhibition prevents the vacuolar escape of L. monocytogenes and enables extensive bacterial replication inside spacious vacuoles. In contrast to previously described spacious Listeria-containing vacuoles, which have been implicated in supporting chronic infection, PrfA inhibition facilitated progressive clearance of intracellular L. monocytogenes from spacious vacuoles through lysosomal degradation. Thus, inhibitory occupation of the PrfA coactivator site facilitates formation of a transient intravacuolar L. monocytogenes replication niche that licenses macrophages to effectively eliminate intracellular bacteria. Our findings encourage further exploration of PrfA as a potential target for antimicrobials and highlight that intra-vacuolar residence of L. monocytogenes in macrophages is not inevitably tied to bacterial persistence.

Seongmin Yoon ◽  
Konstantin Bogdanov ◽  
David Wallach

AbstractPhosphorylation of the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) by the protein kinase RIPK3 targets MLKL to the cell membrane, where it triggers necroptotic cell death. We report that conjugation of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains to distinct lysine residues in the N-terminal HeLo domain of phosphorylated MLKL (facilitated by the ubiquitin ligase ITCH that binds MLKL via a WW domain) targets MLKL instead to endosomes. This results in the release of phosphorylated MLKL within extracellular vesicles. It also prompts enhanced endosomal trafficking of intracellular bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica to the lysosomes, resulting in decreased bacterial yield. Thus, MLKL can be directed by specific covalent modifications to differing subcellular sites, whence it signals either for cell death or for non-deadly defense mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sara Ahmed ◽  
Alyssa Manning ◽  
Lindsay Flint ◽  
Divya Awasthi ◽  
Yulia Ovechkina ◽  

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important global pathogen for which new drugs are urgently required. The ability of the organism to survive and multiply within macrophages may contribute to the lengthy treatment regimen with multiple drugs that are required to cure the infection. We screened the MyriaScreen II diversity library of 10,000 compounds to identify novel inhibitors of M. tuberculosis growth within macrophage-like cells using high content analysis. Hits were selected which inhibited the intramacrophage growth of M. tuberculosis without significant cytotoxicity to infected macrophages. We selected and prioritized compound series based on their biological and physicochemical properties and the novelty of the chemotypes. We identified five chemical classes of interest and conducted limited catalog structure-activity relationship studies to determine their tractability. We tested activity against intracellular and extracellular M. tuberculosis, as well as cytoxicity against murine RAW264.7 and human HepG2 cells. Benzene amide ethers, thiophene carboxamides and thienopyridines were only active against intracellular bacteria, whereas the phenylthiourea series was also active against extracellular bacteria. One member of a phenyl pyrazole series was moderately active against extracellular bacteria. We identified the benzene amide ethers as an interesting series for further work. These new compound classes serve as starting points for the development of novel drugs to target intracellular M. tuberculosis.

Eric Y. Yu ◽  
Michelle M. S. Lee ◽  
Joe H. C. Chau ◽  
Kristy W. K. Lam ◽  
Hojeong Park ◽  

TPEPy-Ala and TPAPy-Kdo with metabolic moieties can be directly incorporated into the bacterial cell envelopes and light up intracellular bacteria. Additionally, the metabolic probes can effectively eliminate labeled bacteria in situ with minimal host cell cytotoxicity via photodyanmic therapy.

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1133
Roland Bamou ◽  
Adama Zan Diarra ◽  
Marie Paul Audrey Mayi ◽  
Borel Djiappi-Tchamen ◽  
Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio ◽  

Wolbachia spp., known to be maternally inherited intracellular bacteria, are widespread among arthropods, including mosquitoes. Our study assessed the presence and prevalence of Wolbachia infection in wild mosquitoes collected in Cameroon, using the combination of 23s rRNA Anaplasmatacea and 16s rRNA Wolbachia genes. Mosquitoes that were positive for Wolbachia were sequenced for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Out of a total of 1740 individual mosquitoes belonging to 22 species and five genera screened, 33 mosquitoes (1.87%) belonging to eight species (namely, Aedes albopictus, A. contigus, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. perfuscus, C. wigglesworthi, C. duttoni, Anopheles paludis and Coquillettidia sp.) were found to be positive for Wolbachia infections. Wolbachia spp. were absent in A. gambiae and A. aegypti, the main vectors of malaria and dengue, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA sequences showed they belong mainly to two distinct subgroups (A and B). This study reports the presence of Wolbachia in about eight species of mosquitoes in Cameroon and suggests that future characterisation of the strains is needed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 127996
Zhenzhen He ◽  
Ningchao Zheng ◽  
Lin Zhang ◽  
Yuehui Tian ◽  
Zhuofeng Hu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anala Nepal ◽  
Synnøve Brandt Ræder ◽  
Caroline Krogh Søgaard ◽  
Maria Schei Haugan ◽  
Marit Otterlei

New antibacterial drugs with novel modes of action are urgently needed as antibiotic resistance in bacteria is increasing and spreading throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of using APIM-peptides targeting the bacterial β-clamp for treatment of skin infections. We selected a lead peptide, named betatide, from five APIM-peptide candidates based on their antibacterial and antimutagenic activities in both G+ and G– bacteria. Betatide was further tested in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays in ESKAPE pathogens, in in vitro infection models, and in a resistance development assay. We found that betatide is a broad-range antibacterial which obliterated extracellular bacterial growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in cell co-cultures without affecting the epithelialization of HaCaT keratinocytes. Betatide also reduced the number of intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in infected HaCaT cells. Furthermore, long-time exposure to betatide at sub-MICs induced minimal or no increase in resistance development compared to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin or ampicillin in S. aureus and Escherichia coli. These properties support the potential of betatide for the treatment of topical skin infections.

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