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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ekaterina Kushnareva ◽  
Vladimir Kushnarev ◽  
Anna Artemyeva ◽  
Lubov Mitrofanova ◽  
Olga Moiseeva

Objective: Immune checkpoints inhibitors are promising and wide-spread agents in anti-cancer therapy. However, despite their efficacy, these agents could cause cardiotoxicity, a rare but life-threatening event. In addition, there are still no well-described predictive factors for the development of immune-related adverse events and information on high risk groups. According to known experimental studies we hypothesized that cardiovascular diseases may increase myocardial PD-L1 expression, which could be an extra target for Checkpoint inhibitors and a potential basis for complications development.Methods: We studied patterns of myocardial PD-L1 expression in non-cancer-related cardiovascular diseases, particularly ischemic heart disease (n = 12) and dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 7), compared to patients without known cardiovascular diseases (n = 10) using mouse monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (clone 22C3, 1:50, Dako). Correlation between immunohistochemical data and echocardiographic parameters was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using R Statistical Software—R studio version 1.3.1093.Results: In the myocardium of cardiac patients, we found membranous, cytoplasmic, and endothelial expression of PD-L1 compared to control group. In samples from patients with a history of myocardial infarction, PD-L1 membrane and endothelial expression was more prominent and frequent, and cytoplasmic and intercalated discs staining was more localized. In contrast, samples from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy displayed very faint endothelial staining, negative membrane staining, and more diffuse PD-L1 expression in the cytoplasm and intercalated discs. In samples from the non-cardiac patients, no convincing PD-L1 expression was observed. Moreover, we discovered a significant negative correlation between PD-L1 expression level and left ventricular ejection fraction and a positive correlation between PD-L1 expression level and left ventricular end-diastolic volume.Conclusions: The present findings lay the groundwork for future experimental and clinical studies of the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cardiovascular diseases. Further studies are required to find patients at potentially high risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors therapy.


Author(s):  
Juan Lu ◽  
Zhaoying Xiao ◽  
Mengqiu Xu ◽  
Lanjuan Li

Accumulating evidence has shown that long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA 346 (LINC00346) functions as an oncogene in the tumorigenesis of several cancers. The expression level of LINC00346 has been shown to be obviously correlated with prognosis, lymphoma metastasis, histological grade, TNM stage, tumor size and pathologic stage. LINC00346 has been found to regulate specific cellular functions by interacting with several molecules and signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize recent evidence concerning the role of LINC00346 in the occurrence and development of diseases. We also discuss the potential clinical utility of LINC00346, thereby providing new insight into the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In addition, we further discuss the potential clinical utility of LINC00346 in the diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment of diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 287-292
Author(s):  
Li Li ◽  
Xiaolian Xing ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Qinqin Zhang ◽  
Lu Fu ◽  
...  

Purpose: To study the effect minocycline on learning and memory functions in ischemic stroke rats, and the underlying mechanism. Methods: 60 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, ischemic brain damage (6 and 24 h MACO) groups; and 6 and 24 h minocycline groups, with 12 rats in each group. The volume of cerebral infarction, neuronal cell apoptosis, NF-κB protein expression, learning and memory ability, and the number of Iba-1+CD206-positive cells, and CD206/CD68 mRNA expressions in sham group, 6 h MACO group and 6 h minocycline group were determined and compared. Results: The number of iba-1 +CD206-positive cells, expression level of CD206 mRNA, frequency of platform crossing, and percentage of third quadrant route in 6 h minocycline group were significantly higher than the corresponding values in 6 h MACO group. However, the cerebral infarction volume, number of Nini-positive cells, and the NF- B protein expression levels were markedly reduced, relative to corresponding values in 6 h MACO rats. The number of iba-1+CD206-positive cells was significantly lower in 6 h MACO rats than in sham rats, while the expression level of CD68 mRNA was significantly higher (p < 0.05). The number of TUNEL-positive cells in 6 and 24 h minocycline groups were markedly lower than that in 6 h MACO group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Minocycline improves learning and memory of ischemic stroke rats by relieving the neuroinflammation induced by cerebral ischemia and cell apoptosis. Thus, the compound can be further developed for management learning and memory deficits in stroke patients.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mariah Ndilimeke Muhongo ◽  
Mourine Kangogo ◽  
Christine Bii

The complete halt in the synthesis of new effective antimicrobial compounds is a global concern. Pathogenic microorganisms' virulence mechanisms seem to have a significant impact on their pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and methanol fractions of Pechuel-Loeschea leubnitziae leaf extract, as well as its effect on the expression level of virulence-associated genes.The extract's fractions were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ATCC 90029. The test organism's antibiogram pattern was determined. The extracts' attenuation effect on the target genes of the susceptible organisms was investigated employing relative quantification using RT-qPCR. The test organism's antibiogram pattern revealed that it was drug-resistant, intermediate, and sensitive. The extracts tested positive for antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans ATCC 90029, with zones of inhibition varying from 20.33 to 29 mm. The lowest recorded MIC value was 4.688 mg/ml, while the highest was 37.5 mg/ml. In contrast to the methanol extract, the ethanol extract had a cidal action at a lower dose. The ethanol extract's Sub-MIC (18.25 mg/ml) merely reduced the expression of the hly gene in MRSA. The MRSA virulence genes were not suppressed by the sub-MIC of methanol extract (18.25 mg/ml). Notably, the expression of als1, pbl1, and sap1 in Candida albicans ATCC 90029 was significantly attenuated when exposed to sub-MICs of ethanol extract (2,344 mg/ml) and methanol extract (9.375 mg/ml). Per the findings of this research, the leaves of P. leubnitziae could be a source of an effective antimicrobial agent in the therapy of MRSA/Candida-related disorders.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zihao Mi ◽  
Zhenzhen Wang ◽  
Xiaotong Xue ◽  
Tingting Liu ◽  
Chuan Wang ◽  
...  

AbstractLepromatous leprosy (L-LEP), caused by the massive proliferation of Mycobacterium leprae primarily in macrophages, is an ideal disease model for investigating the molecular mechanism of intracellular bacteria evading or modulating host immune response. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of both skin biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of L-LEP patients and healthy controls. In L-LEP lesions, we revealed remarkable upregulation of APOE expression that showed a negative correlation with the major histocompatibility complex II gene HLA-DQB2 and MIF, which encodes a pro-inflammatory and anti-microbial cytokine, in the subset of macrophages exhibiting a high expression level of LIPA. The exhaustion of CD8+ T cells featured by the high expression of TIGIT and LAG3 in L-LEP lesions was demonstrated. Moreover, remarkable enhancement of inhibitory immune receptors mediated crosstalk between skin immune cells was observed in L-LEP lesions. For PBMCs, a high expression level of APOE in the HLA-DRhighFBP1high monocyte subset and the expansion of regulatory T cells were found to be associated with L-LEP. These findings revealed the primary suppressive landscape in the L-LEP patients, providing potential targets for the intervention of intracellular bacteria caused persistent infections.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maoshu Bai ◽  
Xin Liu

Abstract BackgroundKinesin family member 23 (KIF23), an index of tumor proliferation, can serve as a prognostic marker in numerous tumors. However, the relationship between KIF23 expression and immune infiltration and the diagnostic value of KIF23 remain unclear in GC (gastric cancer). This study aimed to explored the prognosis value of KIF23 and its interactions with tumor-infiltrating immune cells in GC by bioinformatics analysis. ResultsThe relationship between clinicopathologic features and KIF23 expression was also analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and logistic regression. And the expression level of KIF23 was validated by IHC and GEO databases, which was consistent with informatics results. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the value of KIF23 as a binary classifier using the area under the curve (AUC value). High expression of KIF23 was significantly associated with longer overall survival and progression-free survival in GC. The mutations of KIF23 in GC were analyzed using cBioPortal and the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database. Enrichment analysis of co-expressed genes and KIF23 analysis was performed using LinkedOmics. By using STRING and GeneMANIA databases, we investigated the protein-coding genes related to KIF23 and its co-expression genes in GC tissues. Then, the relationship between KIF23 expression and immune infiltration in GC was investigated using Timer and GEPIA. We found that KIF23 might be used as a potential prognosis biomarker in GC. Subsequently, KIF23 expression level was correlated with the infiltration levels of CD8 + T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and more obviously with B cells and dendritic cells. In addition, KIF23 expression was significantly associated with T cell exhaustion (CTLA-4 and GZMB). KIF23 expression showed correlations with the infiltration of diverse immune markers in GC. ConclusionOur findings suggest KIF23 can serve as a marker for immune infiltration and prognosis in GC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Dongxiao Lou ◽  
Xiaogai Zhang ◽  
Cuihua Jiang ◽  
Fang Zhang ◽  
Chao Xu ◽  
...  

Gout is regarded as a painful inflammatory arthritis induced by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and soft tissues. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production plays a crucial role in the pathological process of gout. Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) tea was found to have an effect on reducing the blood uric acid level of people with hyperuricemia and gout. However, its medicinal ingredients and mechanism for the treatment of gout are still unclear. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of the active triterpenoids isolated from C. paliurus on gout and explore the underlying mechanism. The results showed that compound 2 (3β,23-dihydroxy-12-ene-28-ursolic acid) from C. paliurus significantly decreased the protein expression of IL-1β, caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, pro-caspase-1, and NLRP3. Furthermore, the production of ROS in the intracellular was reduced after compound 2 treatment. However, ROS agonist rotenone remarkably reversed the inhibitory effect of compound 2 on the protein expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, the expression level of LC3 and the ratio of LC3II/LC3I were increased, but the expression level of p62 was suppressed by compound 2 whereas an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly abolished the inhibitory effects of compound 2 on the generation of ROS and the protein expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, compound 2 could ameliorate the expression ratio of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-mTOR/mTOR. Interestingly, mTOR activator MHY-1485 could block the promotion effect of compound 2 on autophagy regulation and inhibitory effect of compound 2 on induction of ROS and IL-1β. In conclusion, these findings suggested that compound 2 may effectively improve NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated gout via PI3K-AKT-mTOR-dependent autophagy and could be further investigated as a potential agent against gout.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cong Yu ◽  
Haining Qi ◽  
Yanhui Zhang ◽  
Wen Zhao ◽  
Guoying Wu

Uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) is a common malignant tumor of the female reproductive system with poor prognosis in advanced, recurrent, and metastatic cases. Identification of reliable molecular markers will help in the development of clinical strategies for early detection, diagnosis, and intervention. Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism pathway. High expression of GGH is associated with severe clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of several cancers. High GGH expression is also related to cell resistance to antifolate drugs such as methotrexate. In this study we focused on the prognostic value of immunohistochemical GGH expression level in UCEC tissue and RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to establish associations with clinical features and outcomes. Further, we conducted comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to identify and functionally annotate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with UCEC upregulation and assessed the effects of upregulation on immune infiltration. Both GGH mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated in tumor tissues, and higher expression was significantly associated with advanced clinicopathological features and poor prognosis by univariate analysis. Further multivariate analysis identified elevated GGH expression as an independent risk factor for poor outcome. Nomograms including GGH expression yielded a c-index for disease-specific survival prediction of 0.884 (95% confidence interval: 0.861–0.907). A total of 520 DEGs (111 upregulated and 409 downregulated) were identified between high and low GGH expression groups. Analysis using Gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, Gene set enrichment analysis, and protein‒protein interaction indicated significant associations of altered GGH expression with cell proliferation, immune response, and the occurrence and development of UCEC tumors. Finally, GGH expression level was associated with high Th2 cell and low natural killer CD56bright cell infiltration. Collectively, these findings indicate that GGH drives UCEC progression and could be a useful biomarker for survival prediction as well as a therapeutic target.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zixuan Wang ◽  
Zixin Tian ◽  
Xi Song ◽  
Jun Zhang

Abstract Background Formin-binding protein 1/17 (FNBP1/FBP17), as a membrane-bound protein, is wildly expressed in eukaryotic cells and performs a critical role in tumor tumorigenesis and progression. However, the relationship between FNBP1 and immune infiltrating cells, prognostic value in patients still require comprehensive understanding. We purposed to explore the correlations of FNBP1 expression, prognosis and immune infiltration levels in various cancers. Method The expression and survival data of FNBP1 were collected from Oncomine, TIMER, GEPIA, Kaplan–Meier Plotter and PrognoScan databases. Correlations between FNBP1 and immune infiltrates were analyzed in TIMER and GEPIA databases. Results Compared with normal tissues, FNBP1 is significantly differentially expressed in a variety of tumor tissues. FNBP1 has significant and complex effects on the prognosis of kinds of cancers. High-expression was obviously correlated with better prognosis in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma, while worse prognosis in stomach adenocarcinoma. Besides, FNBP1 had a correlation with various immune infiltrating cells and diverse immune gene markers in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). FNBP1 was also positively correlated with the adjustment of CD8+ cells, T cells, M2 macrophage, neutrophils, monocyte, Th1 cells, T regulatory cells (Treg) and Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The expression level of FNBP1 is closely positively correlated with the expression level of multiple immune checkpoints in the three cancers. In addition, FNBP1 is significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of a variety of immunosuppressive molecules. Conclusion Our findings reveal FNBP1 can serve as a significant biomarker to influence the prognosis and the immune infiltrating levels in different cancers. The differential expression of FNBP1 might not only contribute to the judgment of metastatic and non-metastatic tumors but also in the immune escape by upregulating the expression of immune checkpoints.


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