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2022 ◽  
Hanxiang Chen ◽  
Yongqing Li ◽  
Shaoming Zhang ◽  
Yunshan Wang ◽  
Lili Wang ◽  

Abstract Background As one of the most common cancer among women worldwide, the prognosis of patients with advanced cervical cancer remains unsatisfactory. A study indicated that transmembrane protein 33 (TMEM33) was implicated in tumor recurrence, while its role in cervical cancer has not been elucidated. Methods TMEM33 expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC) was primarily screened in The Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA), and further validated in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The Kaplan–Meier plotter analysis and Cox regression were constructed to evaluate the prognostic value of TMEM33 in CESC. Functional enrichment analysis was performed with GO, KEGG and GSEA tools. Protein-protein interaction analysis and correlated gene networks were conducted using STING and GEPIA2 websites, respectively. The expression of TMEM33 in cervical cancer cells were examined by immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. Finally, CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were performed to investigate the role of TMEM33 in cervical cancer cell proliferation. Results TMEM33 expression was significantly elevated in CESC compared with normal tissues. High expression of TMEM33 was associated with poor prognostic clinical characteristics in CESC patients. KM-plotter analysis revealed that patients with increased TMEM33 had shorter overall survival (OS), progress free interval (PFI), and disease specific survival (DSS). Moreover, Multivariate Cox analysis further confirmed that high TMEM33 expression was an independent risk factor for OS in patients with CESC. TMEM33 was associated with immune cell infiltration, and its expression was correlated with tumorigenesis-related genes RNF4, OCIAD1, TMED5, DHX15, MED28 and LETM1. More importantly, knockdown of TMEM33 in cervical cancer cells decreased the expression of those genes and inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased TMEM33 in cervical cancer can serve as an independent prognostic marker and might play a role in tumorigenesis by promoting cell proliferation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yao Lu ◽  
Deng Huang ◽  
Baolin Wang ◽  
Bowen Zheng ◽  
Jialong Liu ◽  

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by a high incidence of metastasis. The dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in the invasion and migration of HCC cells. In previous studies, we found that CAPZA1, a capping protein, can promote EMT of HCC cells by regulating the remodeling of the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton, thus promoting the invasion and migration of HCC cells. In this study, we found that FAM21C may have a regulatory effect on CAPZA1, and we conducted an in-depth study on its potential regulatory mechanism. First, we found that FAM21C is highly expressed in HCC tissues and its high expression could promote the malignant progression of HCC. Meanwhile, the high expression of FAM21C promoted the invasion and migration of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Further, FAM21C interacted with CAPZA1, and their binding inhibited the capping capacity of CAPZA1, thus promoting the invasion and migration of HCC cells. This effect of FAM21C was abolished by mutating the CP-interacting (CPI) domain, the CAPZA1 binding site on FAM21C. In conclusion, high expression of FAM21C in HCC tissues can promote malignant progression of HCC and its potential mechanism involves FAM21C inhibition of CAPZA1 capping capacity by binding to CAPZA1, which drives F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and thus promotes invasion and migration of HCC cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Wei Tan ◽  
Shuai Peng ◽  
Zhuokai Li ◽  
Ruiqian Zhang ◽  
Yangrui Xiao ◽  

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is predominant among all types of primary liver cancers characterised by high morbidity and mortality. Genes in the mediator complex (MED) family are engaged in the tumour-immune microenvironment and function as regulatory hubs mediating carcinogenesis and progression across diverse cancer types. Whereas research studies have been conducted to examine the mechanisms in several cancers, studies that systematically focused on the therapeutic and prognostic values of MED in patients with HCC are limited. Methods. The online databases ONCOMINE, GEPIA, UALCAN, GeneMANIA, cBioPortal, OmicStudio, STING, Metascape, and TIMER were used in this study. Results. The transcriptional levels of all members of the MED family in HCC presented an aberrant high expression pattern. Significant correlations were found between the MED1, MED6, MED8, MED10, MED12, MED15, MED17, MED19, MED20, MED21, MED22, MED23, MED24, MED25, MED26, and MED27 expression levels and the pathological stage in the patients with HCC. The patients with high expression levels of MED6, MED8, MED10, MED17, MED19, MED20, MED21, MED22, MED24, and MED25 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the members of the MED family were mainly enriched in the nucleobase-containing compound catabolic process, regulation of chromosome organisation, and transcriptional regulation by TP53. Significant correlations were found between the MED6, MED8, MED10, MED17, MED19, MED20, MED21, MED22, MED24, and MED25 expression levels and all types of immune cells (B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells). B cells and MED8 were independent predictors of overall survival. We found significant correlations between the somatic copy number alterations of the MED6, MED8, MED10, MED20, MED21, MED22, MED24, and MED25 molecules and the abundance of immune infiltrates. Conclusions. Our study delineated a thorough landscape to investigate the therapeutic and prognostic potentials of the MED family for HCC cases, which yielded promising results for the development of immunotherapeutic drugs and construction of a prognostic stratification model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Junhong Li ◽  
Huanhuan Fan ◽  
Xingwang Zhou ◽  
Yufan Xiang ◽  
Yanhui Liu

The urokinase-type plasminogen activator(PLAU) and its receptor PLAUR participate in a series of cell physiological activities on the extracellular surface. Abnormal expression of PLAU and PLAUR is associated with tumorigenesis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of PLAU/PLAUR transcription expression in glioma and to explore how they affect the generation and progression of glioma. In this study, online databases are applied, such as Oncomine, GEPIA, CGGA, cBioPortal, and LinkedOmics. Overexpression of PLAU/PLAUR was found to be significantly associated with clinical variables including age, tumor type, WHO grade, histology, IDH-1 mutation, and 1p19q status. PLAU and PLAUR had a high correlation in transcriptional expression levels. High expression of PLAU and PLAUR predicted a poor prognosis in primary glioma and recurrent glioma patients, especially in lower grade gliomas. Cox regression analysis indicated that high expression of PLAU and PLAUR were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall survival in glioma patients. In gene co-expression network analysis PLAU and PLAUR and their co-expression genes were found to be involved in inflammatory activities and tumor-related signaling pathways. In conclusion, PLAU and PLAUR could be promising prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets of glioma patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Zihao Mi ◽  
Zhenzhen Wang ◽  
Xiaotong Xue ◽  
Tingting Liu ◽  
Chuan Wang ◽  

AbstractLepromatous leprosy (L-LEP), caused by the massive proliferation of Mycobacterium leprae primarily in macrophages, is an ideal disease model for investigating the molecular mechanism of intracellular bacteria evading or modulating host immune response. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of both skin biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of L-LEP patients and healthy controls. In L-LEP lesions, we revealed remarkable upregulation of APOE expression that showed a negative correlation with the major histocompatibility complex II gene HLA-DQB2 and MIF, which encodes a pro-inflammatory and anti-microbial cytokine, in the subset of macrophages exhibiting a high expression level of LIPA. The exhaustion of CD8+ T cells featured by the high expression of TIGIT and LAG3 in L-LEP lesions was demonstrated. Moreover, remarkable enhancement of inhibitory immune receptors mediated crosstalk between skin immune cells was observed in L-LEP lesions. For PBMCs, a high expression level of APOE in the HLA-DRhighFBP1high monocyte subset and the expansion of regulatory T cells were found to be associated with L-LEP. These findings revealed the primary suppressive landscape in the L-LEP patients, providing potential targets for the intervention of intracellular bacteria caused persistent infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010176
Srikanth Mairpady Shambat ◽  
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia ◽  
Tiziano A. Schweizer ◽  
Markus Huemer ◽  
Chun-Chi Chang ◽  

COVID-19 displays diverse disease severities and symptoms including acute systemic inflammation and hypercytokinemia, with subsequent dysregulation of immune cells. Bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 can further complicate the disease course and are associated with increased mortality. However, there is limited understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and hypercytokinemia impede the innate immune function against bacterial superinfections. We assessed the influence of COVID-19 plasma hypercytokinemia on the functional responses of myeloid immune cells upon bacterial challenges from acute-phase COVID-19 patients and their corresponding recovery (rec)-phase. We show that a severe hypercytokinemia status in COVID-19 patients correlates with the development of bacterial superinfections. Neutrophils and monocytes derived from COVID-19 patients in their acute-phase showed an impaired intracellular microbicidal capacity upon bacterial challenges. The impaired microbicidal capacity was reflected by abrogated MPO and reduced NETs production in neutrophils along with reduced ROS production in both neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, we observed a distinct pattern of cell surface receptor expression on both neutrophils and monocytes, in line with suppressed autocrine and paracrine cytokine signaling. This phenotype was characterized by a high expression of CD66b, CXCR4 and low expression of CXCR1, CXCR2 and CD15 in neutrophils and low expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and high expression of CD163 and CD11b in monocytes. Furthermore, the impaired antibacterial effector function was mediated by synergistic effect of the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4. COVID-19 patients receiving dexamethasone showed a significant reduction of overall inflammatory markers in the plasma as well as exhibited an enhanced immune response towards bacterial challenge ex vivo. Finally, broad anti-inflammatory treatment was associated with a reduction in CRP, IL-6 levels as well as length of ICU and hospital stay in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provides insights into the transient functional dysregulation of myeloid immune cells against subsequent bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients and describe a beneficial role for the use of dexamethasone in these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Shoko Miyata ◽  
Noriaki Saku ◽  
Saeko Akiyama ◽  
Palaksha Kanive Javaregowda ◽  
Kenta Ite ◽  

Abstract Background Many drugs have the potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in hepatocytes. Hepatocytes can be accurately evaluated for drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction; this is the gold standard for in vitro hepatic toxicology testing. However, the variation from lot to lot is an issue that needs to be addressed. Only a limited number of immortalized hepatocyte cell lines have been reported. In this study, immortalized cells expressing CYP3A4 were generated from a patient with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Methods To generate DILI-derived cells with high expression of CYP3A4, a three-step approach was employed: (1) Differentiation of DILI-induced pluripotent stem cells (DILI-iPSCs); (2) Immortalization of the differentiated cells; (3) Selection of the cells by puromycin. It was hypothesized that cells with high cytochrome P450 gene expression would be able to survive exposure to cytotoxic antibiotics because of their increased drug-metabolizing activity. Puromycin, a cytotoxic antibiotic, was used in this study because of its rapid cytocidal effect at low concentrations. Results The hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from DILI-iPSCs were purified by exposure to puromycin. The puromycin-selected cells (HepaSM or SI cells) constitutively expressed the CYP3A4 gene at extremely high levels and exhibited hepatocytic features over time. However, unlike primary hepatocytes, the established cells did not produce bile or accumulate glycogen. Conclusions iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells with intrinsic drug-metabolizing enzymes can be purified from non-hepatocytes and undifferentiated iPSCs using the cytocidal antibiotic puromycin. The puromycin-selected hepatocyte-like cells exhibited characteristics of hepatocytes after immortalization and may serve as another useful source for in vitro hepatotoxicity testing of low molecular weight drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Fahui Liu ◽  
Jiadong Liang ◽  
Puze Long ◽  
Lilan Zhu ◽  
Wanyun Hou ◽  

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common malignant tumors. The prognosis and five-year survival rate of HCC are not promising due to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Exploring markers that contribute to the early diagnosis of HCC, markers for prognostic evaluation of HCC patients, and effective targets for treating HCC patients are in the spotlight of HCC therapy. Zinc Finger CCHC-Type Containing 17 (ZCCHC17) encodes the RNA binding protein ZCCHC17, but its role in HCC is still unclear. Here, 90 paraffin-embedded specimens combined with bioinformatics were used to comprehensively clarify the value of ZCCHC17 in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC and its potential functions. Paraffin-embedded specimens were used to assess ZCCHC17 protein expression and its correlation with prognosis in 90 HCC patients. the public data sets of HCC patients from TCGA, ICG, and GEO databases were also used for further analysis. It was found that protein and mRNA levels of ZCCHC17 in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in normal tissues. The abnormally high expression may be related to the abnormal DNA methylation of ZCCHC17 in tumor tissues. The high expression of ZCCHC17 is related to AFP, histologic grade, tumor status, vascular invasion, and pathological stage. Multi-data set analysis showed that patients with high ZCCHC17 expression had a worse prognosis, and multivariate cox regression analysis showed an independent prognostic significance of ZCCHC17. The results of functional analysis, including Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), indicate that ZCCHC17 is mainly involved in immune regulation. Subsequently, further single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) showed that the expression of ZCCHC17 was related to the infiltration of immune cells. Importantly, we also analyzed the relationship between ZCCHC17 and immune checkpoint genes, tumor mutation burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI) and TP53 status in HCC patients and evaluated the role of ZCCHC17 in cancer immunotherapy. In summary, ZCCHC17 is a novel marker for the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of HCC. Concurrently, it regulates immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of HCC patients, which has a specific reference value for the immunotherapy of HCC.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 252
James Drury ◽  
Piotr G. Rychahou ◽  
Courtney O. Kelson ◽  
Mariah E. Geisen ◽  
Yuanyuan Wu ◽  

Altered fatty acid metabolism continues to be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. We previously found that colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with a higher metastatic potential express a higher level of fatty acid translocase (CD36). However, the role of CD36 in CRC metastasis has not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that high expression of CD36 promotes invasion of CRC cells. Consistently, CD36 promoted lung metastasis in the tail vein model and GI metastasis in the cecum injection model. RNA-Seq analysis of CRC cells with altered expression of CD36 revealed an association between high expression of CD36 and upregulation of MMP28, a novel member of the metallopeptidase family of proteins. Using shRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of CD36, we confirmed that CD36 regulates MMP28 expression in CRC cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of MMP28 decreases invasion of CRC cells, suggesting that MMP28 regulates the metastatic properties of cells downstream of CD36. Importantly, high expression of MMP28 leads to a significant decrease in active E-cadherin and an increase in the products of E-cadherin cleavage, CTF1 and CTF2. In summary, upregulation of CD36 expression promotes the metastatic properties of CRC via upregulation of MMP28 and an increase in E-cadherin cleavage, suggesting that targeting the CD36–MMP28 axis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for CRC metastasis.

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