Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are observed in 15–20% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). One of the rare EIMs is myocarditis, the incidence of which is estimated at around 1%. The main cause of myocarditis is a viral infection. Other causes include autoimmune diseases and drug complications (sulfasalazine, mesalazine). We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with Crohn’s disease (CD) with EIMs, manifested as hip joint inflammation and erythema nodosum. At the same time, the symptoms of myopericarditis appeared with changes in electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography and high troponin I concentration. Therapy with corticosteroids resulted in the resolution of skin lesions and cardiological symptoms. Systemic connective tissue diseases, viral and bacterial infections were excluded in the differential diagnosis. The suspicion of mesalazine-induced EIMs was also ruled out as the symptoms resolved despite continued therapy with mesalazine. No further recurrences of myopericarditis were observed.
Children who live in leprosy-endemic areas are susceptible to infection due to early and frequent exposure to Mycobacterium leprae. Indonesia is on the verge of eliminating this disease (prevalence rate < 1/10,000 population), but pediatric leprosy continues to occur in low-endemic areas. This study aimed to evaluate pediatric leprosy over a decade in a tertiary hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. A retrospective study of leprosy in children under 15 years old between 2010 and 2019 was conducted in the Morbus Hansen Division, Outpatient Clinic at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. Seventy pediatric leprosy cases were identified between 2010 and 2019, consisting of 58 multibacillary (MB)-type cases and 12 paucibacillary (PB)-type cases. Slit skin smear (SSS) was positive in 26 cases. There were two cases of grade-2 disability and 15 cases of leprosy reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum) in children at the time of diagnosis. There was an insignificant decline in the number of pediatric leprosy cases in the last 10 years. Cases and disabilities in children were found in some leprosy pocket areas even though the national elimination rate has been achieved. MB infections, disability, and treatment defaults were common problems in pediatric leprosy.
Reactions in leprosy represent sudden shift in the immunological response and are seen in 11–25% of affected patients. It can be seen before, during or after the completion of multidrug therapy (MDT). 1 Two types of reactions are recognized; Type 1 reaction (T1R), seen in borderline leprosy, affecting mainly skin and nerves; type 2 reaction (T2R) or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), seen in lepromatous leprosy, characterized by systemic features in addition to cutaneous lesions. Trophic ulcers and ulcerating ENL are well known entities while cutaneous ulceration in T1R is extremely rare; we describe an immune-competent woman with cutaneous ulceration as a presenting feature to highlight the need to recognize this entity at the earliest opportunity.
Being a region endemic for leprosy, clinical practitioners in India often encounter myriad manifestations and diverse complications of the disease. However, the masking of the obvious clinical presentations due to the coexistence of a closely resembling unrelated disorder, a ‘mimicker’, would indeed pose a serious diagnostic predicament unless a high degree of clinical suspicion is maintained. Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae complex that involves the skin and peripheral nerves. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) also known as von Recklinghausen’s disease is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that presents with skin changes and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumours called neurofibromas. Here, we present the case of a 35-year-old man with NF1 who presented with type 2 lepra reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum, ENL) and the skin biopsy unmasked ENL nodule among the group of NF1 nodules.
Erythema nodosum is a panniculitis that can be triggered by many different stimuli. The paper describes the case of a child who presented with erythema nodosum as the unique clinical manifestation of cat scratch disease. Bartonella henselae infection usually presents with non-tender papule in the scratch line followed by subsequent onset of regional lymphadenopathy eventually associated with systemic symptoms. It can also present with atypical manifestation, such as erythema nodosum. The heterogeneity of the clinical presentations makes the disease to be underdiagnosed, whereby it is important to recognize atypical manifestations. Therefore, it is recommended to include Bartonella henselae serology in the diagnostic evaluation of erythema nodosum.