outage probability
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Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Eduard Jorswieck ◽  
Pin-Hsun Lin ◽  
Karl-Ludwig Besser

It is known that for a slow fading Gaussian wiretap channel without channel state information at the transmitter and with statistically independent fading channels, the outage probability of any given target secrecy rate is non-zero, in general. This implies that the so-called zero-outage secrecy capacity (ZOSC) is zero and we cannot transmit at any positive data rate reliably and confidentially. When the fading legitimate and eavesdropper channels are statistically dependent, this conclusion changes significantly. Our work shows that there exist dependency structures for which positive zero-outage secrecy rates (ZOSR) are achievable. In this paper, we are interested in the characterization of these dependency structures and we study the system parameters in terms of the number of observations at legitimate receiver and eavesdropper as well as average channel gains for which positive ZOSR are achieved. First, we consider the setting that there are two paths from the transmitter to the legitimate receiver and one path to the eavesdropper. We show that by introducing a proper dependence structure among the fading gains of the three paths, we can achieve a zero secrecy outage probability (SOP) for some positive secrecy rate. In this way, we can achieve a non-zero ZOSR. We conjecture that the proposed dependency structure achieves maximum ZOSR. To better understand the underlying dependence structure, we further consider the case where the channel gains are from finite alphabets and systematically and globally solve the ZOSC. In addition, we apply the rearrangement algorithm to solve the ZOSR for continuous channel gains. The results indicate that the legitimate link must have an advantage in terms of the number of antennas and average channel gains to obtain positive ZOSR. The results motivate further studies into the optimal dependency structures.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 448
Yumi Kim ◽  
Mincheol Paik ◽  
Bokyeong Kim ◽  
Haneul Ko ◽  
Seung-Yeon Kim

In a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) environment, an Internet of Things (IoT) device achieves a high data rate by increasing its transmission power. However, excessively high transmission power can cause an energy outage of an IoT device and have a detrimental effect on the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio of neighbor IoT devices. In this paper, we propose a neighbor-aware NOMA scheme (NA-NOMA) where each IoT device determines whether to transmit data to the base station and the transmission power at each time epoch in a distributed manner with the consideration of its energy level and other devices’ transmission powers. To maximize the aggregated data rate of IoT devices while keeping an acceptable average energy outage probability, a constrained stochastic game model is formulated, and the solution of the model is obtained using a best response dynamics-based algorithm. Evaluation results show that NA-NOMA can increase the average data rate up to 22% compared with a probability-based scheme while providing a sufficiently low energy outage probability (e.g., 0.05).

Photonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Kehinde O. Odeyemi ◽  
Pius A. Owolawi

In this paper, the secrecy performance of a mixed free space optical (FSO)/radio frequency (RF) integrated satellite-high altitude platform (HAP) relaying networks for terrestrial multiusers with the existence of an eavesdropper is investigated. In this network, FSO is adopted to establish the link between the satellite and HAP for which it experiences Gamma-Gamma distributions under different detection schemes (i.e., heterodyne and intensity modulation direct detection). The transmission between the amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying HAP and terrestrial multiusers is through the RF and is modeled as shadowed-Rician fading distribution. Owning to broadcasting nature of RF link, it is assumed that an eavesdropper attempts to intercept the users’ confidential message, and the eavesdropper link is subjected to Rician distributions. Specifically, the closed-form expression for the system equivalent end-to-end cumulative distribution function is derived by exploiting the Meijer’s G and Fox’s H functions. Based on this expression, the exact closed-form expressions of the system connection outage probability, secrecy outage probability, and strictly positive secrecy capacity are obtained under the different detection schemes at HAP. Moreover, the asymptotic analyze of the system secrecy outage probability is provided to obtain more physical insights. Furthermore, the accuracy of all the derived analytical closed-form expressions is verified through the Monte-Carlo simulations. In addition, the impact of atmospheric turbulence, pointing errors, shadowing severity parameters, and Rician factor are thoroughly evaluated. Under the same system conditions, the results depict that heterodyne detection outperforms the intensity modulation direct detection.

Ishtiaq Ahmad ◽  
Chang Sung ◽  
Dmitry Kramarev ◽  
Gottfried Lechner ◽  
Hajime Hajime Suzuki ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Kaveti UmaMaheswari ◽  
Arjun Chakravarthi Pogaku ◽  
Dinh-Thuan Do ◽  
Anh-Tu Le ◽  
Munyaradzi Munochiveyi

With the given scope for new use cases and the demanding needs of future 6th generation (6G) wireless networks, the development of wireless communications looks exciting. The propagation medium has been viewed as a randomly behaving entity between the transmitter and the receiver since traditional wireless technology, degrading the quality of the received signal due to the unpredictable interactions of the broadcast radio waves with the surrounding objects. On the other hand, network operators could now manipulate electromagnetic radiation to remove the negative impacts of natural wireless propagation due to the recent arrival of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) in wireless communications. According to recent findings, the RIS mechanism benefits nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which can effectively deliver effective transmissions. For simple design, of RIS-NOMA system, fixed power allocation scheme for NOMA is required. The main system performance metric, i.e., outage probability, needs to be considered to look at the efficiency and capability of transmission mode relying on RIS and NOMA schemes, motivated by the potential of these developing technologies. As major performance metrics, we derive analytical representations of outage probability, and throughput and an accurate approximation is obtained for the outage probability. Numerical results are conducted to validate the exactness of the theoretical analysis. It is found that increasing the higher number of reflecting elements in the RIS can significantly boost the outage probability performance, and the scenario with only the RIS link is also beneficial. In addition, it is desirable to deploy the RIS-NOMA since it is indicated that better performance compared with the traditional multiple access technique.

2021 ◽  
Shu Xu ◽  
Chen Liu ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
Mujun Qian ◽  
Wenfeng Sun

Abstract Secure transmission is essential for future non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system. This paper investigates relay-antenna selection (RAS) to enhance physical-layer security (PLS) of cooperative NOMA system in the presence of an eavesdropper, where multiple antennas are deployed at the relays, the users, and the eavesdropper. In order to reduce expense on radio frequency (RF) chains, selection combining (SC) is employed at both the relays and the users, whilst the eavesdropper employs either maximal-ratio combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC) to process the received signals. Under the condition that the channel state information (CSI) of the eavesdropping channel is available or unavailable, two e↵ective relay-antenna selection schemes are proposed. Additionally, the closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability (SOP) are derived for the proposed relay-antenna selection schemes. In order to gain more deep insights on the derived results, the asymptotic performance of the derived SOP is analyzed. In simulations, it is demonstrated that the theoretical results match well with the simulation results and the SOP of the proposed schemes is less than that of the conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme obviously.

2021 ◽  
Anand Jee ◽  
Shankar Prakriya

This paper investigates the performance of a framework for low-outage downlink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) signalling using a coordinated direct and relay transmission (CDRT) scheme with direct links to both the near-user (NU) and the far-user (FU). Both amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relaying are considered. In this framework, NU and FU combine the signals from BS and R to attain good outage performance and harness a diversity of two without any need for feedback. For the NU, this serves as an incentive to participate in NOMA signalling. For both NU and FU, expressions for outage probability and throughput are derived in closed form. High-SNR approximations to the outage probability are also presented. We demonstrate that the choice of power allocation coefficient and target rate is crucial to maximize the NU performance while ensuring a desired FU performance. We demonstrate performance gain of the proposed scheme over selective decode-and-forward (SDF) CDRT-NOMA in terms of three metrics: outage probability, sum throughput and energy efficiency. Further, we demonstrate that by choosing the target rate intelligently, the proposed CDRT NOMA scheme ensures higher energy efficiency (EE) in comparison to its orthogonal multiple access counterpart. Monte Carlo simulations validate the derived expressions.

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